Giardia in adults – how to identify the latent threat?

Giardiasis - a serious illness, caused by protozoal infections, - Giardia. For the prevention and treatment of disease need to know, What is Giardia. It protozoozy - the simplest organisms, parazytyruyuschye people, household and commercial animals, as well as in pets.

Лямблиоз – тяжелое заболевание, вызываемое лямблиями
Giardiasis - a serious illness, caused by Giardia
  • They can affect all tissues and organs, are found in the blood and central nervous system.
  • The transfer of the pathogen the person is possible in various ways:
  • Alimentary - getting micro-organism with food
  • Contact - if we neglect the careful hand washing

Sex - sexual intercourse, in combination with a contact and bloodborne

Bloodborne - for injection, eg, during drug administration, as well as inaccurate medical procedures

Specifically, giardiasis often transmitted by the first two methods, It affects the small intestine and in the process causes a malfunction of the body's, accompanied by neurological and allergic symptoms.

What is known about giardiasis

This kind protozoozov infected a significant number of rats, mice, dogs and cats, it is found in other animals.

A person can get giardia from them, as well as livestock - cows and pigs. It is also very possible to transmit from human to human - in the feces can contain up 25 million. viable cysts of the parasite. For infection, only one or two cysts, caught in the intestines.

unwashed hands, contaminated water, food could be hit by a microorganism to man. Besides, carry Giardia cysts may flies and cockroaches.

The presence of cysts were detected even in the school and pre-school establishments - in swabs from the hands of students, staff, door handles, etc.. d.

Their incredible vitality. Giardia cysts can survive even in tap water to 3 months, they live and are waiting for the soil to host 75 day, in seawater - to 2 months.

Are killed by heating the water to a subject or 700 - through 5-10 minutes, Boiling water - instantly. They die quickly in cabbage pickle, through 24 o'clock, and here in dairy products at 6-70 can remain alive up 120 day - that is more 3 months. Transfer the short-term freezing.

Giardiasis in adults can cause a child, if in a children's institution should carefully enough for washing children's hands, Besides, source may be unwashed hands of staff. Agricultural products may be contaminated with Giardia cysts due to soil contamination, dirty hands vegetable stores and nutrition workers. Also carries a greater risk consumption of unwashed fruits and vegetables. Presence of insects - flies, cockroaches can also be a source of infection.

As can be seen, such an extension of these protozoozov and their viability can be a serious threat to human health.

Лямблии могут быть серьезной угрозой здоровью человека
Giardia can be a serious threat to human health

Places of parasitism in humans

The main habitat of mature individuals - the upper sections of the small intestine, wherein the set microbiologists, that they are maximally adapted specifically to this part of the human body.

Основное место обитания зрелых особей – верхние отделы тонкого кишечника
The main habitat of mature individuals - the upper sections of the small intestine

They can not live in the liver and gall bladder, to parasitism inside of the small intestine tissue capacity is extremely weak. Can be introduced into the intestinal villi tissue only at very strong invasion - said only a few cases.

Giardia is attached to the front part of the intestinal mucosa surface, the rear end remains free, staying in one place for a while, then are detached, To fix elsewhere. Sometimes, for some time may be held in a free state.

The dangers of giardiasis

Giardia adapted to pump nutrients in those parts of the intestine, where there is the most intensive production of enzymes. This results in regular violation of the synthesis of important enzymes - invertase, lactase and other.

Enzyme deficiency leads to decrease fat assimilation, proteins, vitamins, Carbohydrate - gradually disturbed metabolism, It decreases the concentration of vitamin A, WITH, carotene.

The surface of the intestine villi, affected by parasites, becomes non-functional - it is no longer necessary to suck a man of substance. Permanent attachment and detachment of giardia leads to damage and irritation, especially when you consider, What's on 1 cm2 intestinal mucosal surface can hold up to one million individuals.

If the infection lasts more than two months, then the lesions become swollen, begins an inflammatory process varying degrees of severity, other degenerative changes. On the surface of the villi appear sulcus, corresponding in shape prisasyvatelnomu body parasite.

Besides, symptoms of disruption of other gastrointestinal, having secondary character. Sometimes these developmental pathology complicated by the addition of an infection, the entire body begins to weaken, lose immune resistance.

Наличие паразита в организме способствует ослаблению иммунной системы
The presence of the parasite in the body contributes to the weakening of the immune system

Symptoms of infection

Раздражительность, утомляемость, головокружение могут быть симптомами лямблиоза
Irritability, fatiguability, dizziness may be symptoms of giardiasis

Symptoms of giardiasis in adults, especially in the presence of chronic digestive system diseases, often expressed by the symptoms of these diseases:

  • The symptoms of indigestion, duodenitis, enterit, enterokolit. Often accompanied by nausea, decreased appetite. unstable chair, belching, heartburn.
  • Pain in the navel, Right in the stomach, occasional bouts of pain accompanied by nausea sharp, slightly swollen belly, painful.
  • Irritability, fatiguability, dizziness, sleep disturbances, tearfulness. Sometimes there are pains in the heart area.
  • Elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood, which indicates parasitic defeat of the body. Eosinophils, specific white blood cells, increase the number of in some diseases, giardiasis including.
  • allergic reactions, exacerbation of symptoms of atopic dermatitis. There were manifestations in the form of attacks intolerable itching, urticaria. Sometimes it expressed as allergic bronchial asthma and bronchitis. It may be incurable rhinitis or conjunctivitis thrust, blepharitis. Symptoms also met sharp aggravation of osteoarthritis. However, all these symptoms completely passed after specific treatment of giardiasis.

before, you start to reflect, how to get rid of Giardia, or take action themselves on their own healing, be sure, it is giardiasis, that is to see a doctor and to hand over the material for research.

diagnosis of the disease

Since giardiasis has no specific symptoms manifested mainly exacerbation comorbidities, for an accurate diagnosis is necessary to carry out laboratory tests.

To conduct research needed feces and duodenal contents. The feces can be detected only parasite cysts, in duodenal contents - only trophozoites (the active form of Giardia). If we study the liquid discharge from the bowel, then they can see both forms of the microorganism.

The indication for delivery of analyzes can be:

  • frequent exacerbations of chronic gastrointestinal diseases
  • signs of disturbances in the intestinal functionality
  • chronically increased number of eosinophils in the blood
  • persistent allergic manifestations
  • persistent diarrhea.

Studies have held several times, taking into account the allocation of the wave-like cysts and short terms microorganism lives in the environment.

When obvious signs and lesions in the absence of trophozoites in duodenal contents, fence material from the duodenum may be appointed.

treatment for giardiasis

If you experience chronic giardiasis, treatment by radical methods impractical - you can get complications of comorbidities, accompanied by allergic reactions.

Рекомендуется провести постепенное лечение лямблиоза у взрослых в три этапа
It is recommended to carry out a gradual treatment of giardiasis in adults in three stages

It is recommended to carry out a gradual treatment of giardiasis in adults in three stages, scheme is designed and appointed doctor:

  • Measures to improve immunity

Diet, which will create difficult conditions for lamblia breeding (cereals, dried fruits, vegetables, vegetable oils). Reducing carbohydrate intake, preparations reception, activates the gall bladder, antihistamines (to reduce the immunoallergic reactions of the organism), enzymes can be administered. You should also take a multivitamin and probiotics.

  • antiprotozoal therapy

Performed using preparations, destroying protozoa (metronidazol, tiberal). It should take antihistamines and sorbents.

When acute treatment of Giardia in adults being treated in one step - receiving rate antiparasitic drugs, scheme can be expanded and probiotics rate multivitamins.

Recently, the use of metronidazole is becoming rare - according to research, there are many strains of, which are resistant to this agent. Therefore, other drugs are prescribed more often:

  • 'Tinidazool'

short course, Total 2 day. Not given to pregnant, persons with impaired hematopoietic function, disorders in the central nervous system, as well as increased sensitivity. quite effective, to 80%.

  • Tiberal (active substance ornidazol)

Appointed the courses of 1 to 10 days depending on the severity of the lesion. There are side effects, so the treatment must be carried out under the supervision of a physician. Not given to pregnant, especially in the early stages, lactation. There have been cases of individual intolerance.

effective, to 93%.

  • «Makmiror»

effective, to 96%. It has no side effects, It can be assigned to the treatment of children.
Self-treatment of giardiasis is not recommended, Considering the possibility of abrupt allergic manifestations and significant deterioration upon receipt of antiprotozoal drugs. Do not use tips on the Internet, how to treat giardia - first you need to check, whether they have in the body.

At the end of treatment by any medication control tests carried out, turn-relevant analyzes, then a month later - another.

Prevention of Giardia infection

  • It is necessary to combat insects in the house, especially in the locations of the products
  • When the unstable chair, other persistent symptoms of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract should be examined for the presence of parasites.
  • You can not drink the water from the reservoirs without boiling
  • Good personal hygiene.
Нельзя пить воду, предварительно не прокипятив ее
You can not drink the water, without first having boiled it

Taking into account the viability of the parasite cysts and ease of contamination, can not be guaranteed to get rid of them forever, However, timely action and compliance with the rules of prevention can significantly reduce the probability of occurrence of this problem,.

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