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Что такое бактерии?

По подсчетам ученых в организме человека находится от 500 to 1000 разнообразных видов бактерий или миллиарды таких «жильцов», причем их общий вес в организме может достигать 4 kg.

Большая часть этих микроорганизмов (до трех килограмм) находится в кишечнике, а остальные обитают на коже, мочеполовых путях и других органах. Из всей массы бактерий, обитающих в человеческом организме, 99% – полезные, и только 1% – наносят вред организму.

Болезнетворные бактерии являются представителями нормальной (ie. естественной) микрофлоры кишечника, stomach, vagina, oral. Но при большой популяции бактерии способны выделять в организм достаточное количество токсинов, чтобы вызывать отравление и заболевания у человека.

Существуют также такие бактерии, которые вызывают заболевания, сразу же после попадания в организм, причем даже в незначительных количествах. Такие бактерии не являются характерными для естественной среды микрофлоры, и их яды, выделяемые в организм, могут стать смертельно опасными для человека.

Рассмотрим наиболее часто встречающиеся болезнетворные бактерии, могущие нанести вред человеку:

  • Во рту: стрептококк, пневмококк, staphylococcus, бактерии гингивалис, mycoplasma.
  • На коже: staphylococcus, стрептококк, fungi Microsporum, Trichophyton и Epidermophyton.
  • На половых органах: грибок Candida, гонококк, mycoplasma.
  • В кишечнике: staphylococcus, colon bacillus, mushrooms, энтерококк.

Механизм действия бактерий достаточно прост – как только микроб попадает в благоприятные условия, его клетки начинают активно размножаться, одновременно выбрасывая в окружающую среду продукты своей жизнедеятельности (toxins). Эти токсины разрушительно действуют на все органы человека, нарушая здоровье и приводя к повреждениям всех клеток тела.

В чем опасность бактерий?

Наиболее сильные яды выделяют такие бактерии, как дифтерийная палочка, stryeptokokki, столбнячная палочка, staphylococci, colon bacillus. Эти бактерии вырабатывают яд только в процессе своей жизнедеятельности.

Stryeptokokki становятся причиной массы тяжелых инфекционных заболеваний, могут вызвать серьезные поражения почек, суставов, hearts. Данный вид бактерий производит токсины, повреждающие ткани организма и способствуют распространению инфекции во все органы человека.

Gonokokki вызывают воспалительные процессы на слизистых оболочках мочеполовых путей и могут спровоцировать конъюнктивиты у новорожденных.

staphylococci способны вызывать заболевания костей, суставов, hearts, нижних и верхних дыхательных путей, мочевыводящей системы и мозга. Стафилококк поражает почти все без исключения ткани и органы человек. Медики насчитывают более ста заболеваний, которых может вызывать стафилококковая инфекция.

Пневмококки часто становятся причиной пневмонии, бронхитов, плевритов, перитонитов, meningitis, arthritis.

colon bacillus способствует воспалению кишечника, мочевого пузыря, почек и других органов.

Микоплазма и уреаплазма могут стать причиной развития уретрита, пиелонефрита, бактериального вагиноза, воспалительных заболеваний матки и придатков.

Существуют и другие бактерии, которые способны отравлять организм даже после собственной смерти. К ним относят пневмококки, туберкулезную палочку, холеру и т.д.

В результате интоксикации продуктами жизнедеятельности бактерий человек может заболеть тифом, ангиной, сибирской язвой, дифтерией, tuberculosis, столбняком и другими опасными заболеваниями.

Как защититься от опасности?

Попадание в организм болезнетворных бактерий не обязательно приводит к развитию заболевания, некоторые микроорганизмы могут десятилетиями мирно существовать в организме, не нанося вреда человеку. Проблемы со здоровьем возникают тогда, когда организм начинает ослабевать в силу тех или иных причин. Существуют причины, наличие которых невозможно предотвратить (eg, генетическая предрасположенность или пожилой возраст), но чаще всего человек сам лишает себя защиты от микробов.

Соблюдая простые меры предосторожности, можно избежать множества опасных заболеваний и долгого и изнурительного лечения. К таким мероприятиям относят соблюдение личное гигиены и санитарно-профилактических мер, употребление в пищу правильно и тщательно обработанных продуктов, соблюдение здорового образа жизни. Последний пункт особенно важен, ведь именно от здорового образа жизни зависит иммунитет, а слабый и нарушенный иммунитет является первопричиной распространения бактерий и развития заболеваний.