Giardia - human parasites. Analysis of giardia should do in the presence of symptoms, even weakly expressed, because the causative agent of the disease is widespread. according to statistics,, 20% children younger 10 years are infected with giardiasis. Among adults, the percentage below, but still frightening figures.
Giardiasis cause small parasites - Giardia. The period of development of their body - 1-2 weeks after infection. During this time, their number increases. As a result of disturbed bowel work, generally thin.
- from person to person - fecal-oral;
- from animals to humans. This mechanism is controversial, since there is still no valid data about the possibility of such contamination.
The causes of infection - failure to comply with health standards. Including lack of hygienic handling of food, which can settle cysts.
cysts - is converted giardia without flagella, a dense shell. As such, they can exist outside of the host organism.
note! If you do not treat giardiasis, the process of digestion breaks down, probable development of the organism exhaustion. If the parasites develop in the biliary tract, they cause liver damage.
- The sharp rise in temperature to 38 degrees and above.
- Acute pain in the abdomen, localization in the region of the navel.
- Nausea and vomiting, long period.
- Weight loss.
- prolonged diarrhea, last up to several weeks.
- On the skin - pink itchy rash.
In the presence of such symptoms need fecal giardia. there are situations, when the parasites develop in the body almost asymptomatic, then do not do without a blood test for antibodies, but it is not credible without additional study types.
analysis of feces
The most common and informative in the presence of characteristic symptoms of a Giardia fecal children and adults. This assay has high reliability, as it allows you to see the cysts of Giardia and moving even in the early stages of infection.
Important! A single delivery of the analysis may not give accurate clinical picture, so it is recommended to take the biomaterial is at least three times with an interval 3-5 days.
The method - fecal consideration under the microscope. In this case, the material found or not found cysts. On the basis of this laboratory concludes, which may be of the form:
- A negative result - means no lamblia in feces.
- A positive result - Giardia present in the body.
note! False positive test does not happen, false-negative results occur, although infrequently.
PCR (polymerase chain reaction) It helps to identify many diseases, including giardiasis. This analysis gives the best accuracy of the. The advantages of PCR:
- the direct detection of the pathogen. Other tests can indicate the presence of parasites waste, while PCR will indicate the presence of DNA fragments Giardia;
- high specificity - identifies fragments of DNA are specific to the parasite;
- sensitivity - PCR can detect even a single cell;
- velocity produce a result - after 4-5 hours after the testing.
Preparation for delivery of analysis
Before, how to pass the test for Giardia, necessary to sustain a number of requirements, to get the most reliable results. important features:
- To study the need cal, obtained not later, than 12 hours before analysis.
- for 48 hours prior to the collection of feces is necessary to exclude the use of laxatives, the use of rectal suppositories, oils and any medications, biomaterial that can impart color.
- Containers for the collection of faeces is not necessary to wash, wipe or rinse, they have a sealed package.
- The stool should not life urine.
note! In some laboratories require 2-hour stool. But when it comes to fence it in a child, podgadat moment too difficult to collect the material. Analysis of giardia and adult, and the child can be carried out with the feces, which is more than 2 hours. Such a requirement due to the lab, that in the 2-hour stool consider Giardia easier, because they have a familiar look - moving with flagella. Through 2 hours or more parasites understand, something is wrong (acidity, temperature), therefore losing flagella, covered shell and stop moving.
Detect giardia in the blood can be through 1-3 weeks after infection. At first, the infestation can not in any way appear to have a non-unique or symptoms. The first is not pronounced symptoms of people try to treat yourself, but it is fraught with complications.
The blood test is indicated for mild symptomatology, in specification fecal analysis, or as a way to identify the effectiveness of the treatment after passing. Method for detection of antibodies to Giardia called ELISA. It helps to detect antibodies, produced by the body in response to the appearance of parasites.
note! Only a blood test for antibodies to Giardia is not effective. It is prescribed in addition to other methods of parasite detection. Explained by the fact, that the antibodies in the blood can be stored for a long time, even after recovery.
Features of donations of blood for analysis:
- Blood is drawn from a vein, fasting, morning. It means, what the 10 hours before delivery do not eat.
- A week before the delivery can not take medication against parasites.
- for 10 hours prior to the delivery of the analysis can not drink coffee, tea, juices, alcohol. You can drink only pure water without gas.
- The duration of the study - 3 day.
Deciphering blood test
The main objective of the analysis - to determine the presence of antibodies to lyambiozu, Results are presented as the presence of lgA antibodies, lgM и lgG. lgM are found in the blood 2 weeks after infection, their presence indicates the acute phase of the disease. Then there are lgG and lgA - they are a sign of a chronic course of giardiasis. Their presence in large numbers there is all the time becoming infected with parasites.
A positive result of the study considered an indicator of longer 1 KPIs and this indicates infection or that, that the infestation was last. index less 0,85 MPA is considered negative, in this case it can be argued, that there is no infection.
If the result is within the range 0,85-1 HPD, We need re-examining in 14-21 days. In this case, you need to pass an additional analysis of feces.
note! lgM and lgG may appear in the blood as a result of infection by bacteria and other parasites.
Obtaining the opinion of the laboratory for the presence of Giardia infestation, you need to see a doctor for treatment purposes. Parallel to introduce tighter control of hygiene and nutrition. To self-medicate is not recommended! If parasites are detected and one family member, must pass all tests.