Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy – symptoms and causes of the disease

Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy – symptoms and causes of the disease

How to protect yourself from toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis - a disease, feared all women, planning to become pregnant. And these fears are well founded, tk. This type of infection is dangerous not only for the mother, but also for the health of the future child. but, expectant mothers should not panic in advance, because toxoplasmosis during pregnancy in each case has significant differences depending on the modes of transmission, course of the disease and methods of its elimination.

Токсоплазмоз при беременности
In most cases, can be infected with toxoplasmosis by eating meat from infected animals or by ingestion of feces of infected pregnant animals

Ways of infection toxoplasmosis

The most common cause of infection of pregnant women with toxoplasmosis is in close contact with pets (cats, dogs). But there are cases, When pregnancy is not in contact with pets, and in the study have been diagnosed with toxoplasmosis. Become infected with toxoplasmosis can also be through drinking water and raw water or through the consumption of meat, not elapsed appropriate heat treatment.

note! In most cases, can be infected with toxoplasmosis by eating meat from infected animals or by ingestion of feces of infected pregnant animals.

From pets (especially, cats) infected with the disease can be fecal-oral route, ie. by eating food, infected cat feces, by inhalation of particles of faeces when cleaning cat litter, for facial contact with pets (when the hosts 'kiss on the nose' favorites).

If there is a pet in the house, especially if he is walking on the street, guard against toxoplasmosis is difficult. But in this there are certain advantages: many women suffer in the hidden form of toxoplasmosis before pregnancy, with the result that they are developing a strong immunity to the disease.

Manifestation of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women

Most often, toxoplasmosis in pregnancy was without any clinical manifestations or there are small changes in the state of health. Although the first signs of disease begin to show through 1-3 weeks after, as the parasite enters the human body.

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women are not specific, tk. Similar symptoms can be observed in other pathologies of pregnant women.

  • Common symptoms:
  • The emergence of a feeling of weakness;
  • swollen lymph nodes;
  • sleep disturbances;
  • fatigue;
  • Temperature rise;
  • Lack of appetite;
  • Increasing the size of the liver.

The strength and nature of the symptoms depends on the activity of the pathogen and the general state of a person. Symptoms of the disease also depend on the body, who was struck most of all. Against this background appears:

  • Jaundice;
  • Headaches;
  • Decreased muscle tone;
  • rash;
  • disorders of memory;
  • Pneumonia.

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis depends largely on the form of the disease occurrence:

  • In the acute form of a fever (over 38 degrees), muscle pain, inflammation of the lymph nodes.
  • Chronic toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is characterized by disturbances in the digestive and nervous system, can be interrupted in the cardiovascular system.

Toxoplasmosis is difficult to identify yourself, especially in the early stages, so, to make sure of their safety and fetus, a woman should conduct a study on the infection, and to make it desirable for planning a pregnancy or also in the early stages.

Токсоплазмоз при беременности
The strength and nature of the symptoms depends on the activity of the pathogen and the general state of a person

diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is diagnosed based on the manifestations of illness and laboratory-instrumental examinations.

The basic method of determining the toxoplasmosis is a blood test, wherein the detected presence of toxoplasma in internal organs and blood and determine the presence of antibodies to toxoplasmosis. Also determined not only by the presence of infection, but also the duration of presence in the human body.

When analyzing the measured blood levels of the two antibodies - iimunoglobulinov (IgG и IgM):

  • Presence of IgG in the absence of IgM indicates existing immunity to the disease. In these indications, further research and treatment is not carried out, tk. ill with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy a woman can not.
  • The absence of IgG and IgM presence indicates the presence of infection, which has a primary nature. There is a risk of fetal infection. Additionally appointed by blood and urine tests to Toxoplasma, and through 10-14 day study of blood serum repeat.
  • The presence of both of the two antibodies can talk about the possibility of primary infection, which happened 1-2 next few years. For more accurate pass laboratory tests for toxoplasmosis (urine and blood), and later 2 Time analysis is repeated.
  • The absence of both antibodies indicates the absence of infection and poor immunity. When this situation is recommended to adhere to preventive measures and repeat analysis every trimester.

note! Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is compulsory for all pregnant women, regardless of whether a woman is infected or not. According to the diagnosis results are determined by the condition of the body and the possible consequences.

If toxoplasmosis positive analysis, additionally appointed fetal screening for infection. It is carried out with the help of ultrasound and amniocentesis. US defines an enlarged liver and spleen of fetus, intracranial calcification, the possible expansion of the brain ventricles. amniocentesis (amniotic fluid intake) held from the 16th week of pregnancy.

The consequences of toxoplasmosis do not always affect the child, so the diagnosis of the disease in a pregnant woman - not a cause for abortion. Only after conducting research on the subject of fetal infection and in the event of positive results, recommend abortion, and then only with the consent of the woman.

Токсоплазмоз при беременности
To treat toxoplasmosis in pregnant women only in the later stages - starting with 12-16 week of pregnancy

toxoplasmosis treatment

If tests and laboratory and instrumental studies yielded positive results, treat toxoplasmosis in pregnant it is necessary. The treatment regimen and its duration is determined by the doctor in each individual case.

Important! To treat toxoplasmosis in pregnant women only in the later stages - starting with 12-16 week of pregnancy. This is due to the fact, that used drugs can have a negative impact on the development of the fetus and.

As being treated:

  • To 15 Time prescribers Rovamycinum - macrolide antibiotic series. It is highly effective and well tolerated.
  • After appoint sulfonamides, leykoverin, pyrimethamine and folic acid. Drugs are taken up 36 of the week.
  • After 36 Time again take Rovamycinum.

Cure the infection completely impossible, but taking drugs significantly reduce the risk of fetal infection and the development of the unpleasant effects of the disease.

Treatment is not given to pregnant women, if they suffered toxoplasmosis before pregnancy.

whether toxoplasmosis is dangerous for pregnant women

If a pregnant woman in the body there is an infection, it can easily fall through the blood to the fetus. pathology can lead to spontaneous abortion, premature birth, stillbirth.

Congenital toxoplasmosis can lead to abnormalities in the child of all organs and systems (liver, bodies of, spleen, of the brain, hematopoietic system, digestive organs, et al.) and the emergence of irreversible states (gidrocefalii, blindness, cataracts, underdevelopment of the brain).

note! Do not immediately panic - the development of pathologies and the risk of infection of the child depends on the period, in which the expectant mother has been infected. According to the statistics - only one fruit of thousands infected with toxoplasmosis.

As toxoplasmosis and pregnancy affect the fetus:

  • In the early stages there is a minimal risk of infection of the fetus through the placenta (Total 10-15%). but, at this stage is the formation of all organs of the unborn child. Therefore, the effects of toxoplasmosis may be the most difficult: the fetus can develop serious defects, which will lead to miscarriage or fetal death.
  • In the second trimester, the likelihood of infection higher - about 20 %. The infection can affect the organs of vision, brain, the nervous system. Typically, the immunity can not cope with the disease, but the child may be born with severe disabilities.
  • At later stages of the fetus is infected by media (mother) at 60% all cases. But it is opposed to fruit infection more successfully and in most cases the newborn is born without abnormalities. At this stage, early treatment gives good result.

Important! For toxoplasmosis the mother of the child is dangerous only if, If the infection occurred primarily. If the infection was brought before (in a hidden form) the risk of fetal infection is minimal or completely absent.

Токсоплазмоз при беременности
It is not necessary to leave a pet after the detection of toxoplasmosis

How to protect yourself from toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is easier to prevent, than cure. For this purpose we follow the simple rules:

  • Completely abandon the use of meat, without heat treatment (this also applies to the land).
  • Wash fruits and vegetables before eating.
  • After contact with animals (special, cleaning their toilets) wash hands thoroughly;
  • Do not kiss the pet and bring it close to your face.

note! It is not necessary to leave a pet after the detection of toxoplasmosis. If a pet has lived with a host of more than 3 years, probably the hostess has long developed an immunity to toxoplasmosis. If the doctor insists on parting with pet, better to leave with the doctor.

Pets desirable to periodically screening for toxoplasmosis, and for the period of pregnancy it is better to entrust the care of the darling of the other family members.

Токсоплазмоз при беременности
Toxoplasmosis is easier to prevent, than cure

Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women is not dangerous, if they have previously been ill with this infection and acquired immunity. In this case, toxoplasmosis will not harm any of the pregnancy, nor her fetus.

Previously pregnant never encountered toxoplasmosis, subject to preventive measures do not worry about the infection occurs,. In the case of toxoplasmosis infection, its consequences can be dire, since there is the risk of losing a child.

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