Rabies - a dangerous disease, which is caused by rabies virus. It falls into the body through the patient's saliva animal during its simple skin or sting. Contrary to popular belief about dangerous dogs, cats, foxes and bats, carriers of rabies can be almost any animal. This disease affects the nervous system, and without timely treatment of people die from rabies. Rabies in humans, symptoms of which everyone should know, It occurs most often in people, which come into contact with wild animals or street, but there are also cases of sudden attack sick animals or birds per person.
The disease has a long incubation period, which lasts from ten days to a few months, after which the first signs of rabies in humans. Known rare cases, when after being bitten by the disease does not manifest itself for about a year. Seek medical advice immediately after infection, People can prevent disease. If the disease has manifested itself, then the later start appropriate treatment, the less favorable prognosis.
By the bite of a cat or other animal, contact with the saliva of a sick animal to the human blood the virus enters the bloodstream and travels to the brain side at a rate of 3 mm time. This speed is due to the varying duration of the incubation period depending on the location, which hit the saliva of an infected animal. The most dangerous bites in the head, in second place - bites in the hands, fingers, genitals, because in these places increased blood circulation, and are located close to the central nervous system. Once in the brain, virus begins to destroy the cells of the cerebral cortex, because of his human behavior becomes inadequate. Also destroyed the medulla oblongata, cerebellum, centers of the cranial nerves, subcortex.
Virus from the brain is sent along nerve fibers down, disrupting the coordination and causing paralysis. When the virus reaches the brain high concentration, in brain cells begin to appear modified conglomerates, known as calf Babes-Negri. At this stage it is impossible to cure rabies, corpuscles are already at the opening.
Regardless of, How does rabies in humans in the early stages, treat it after the first symptoms is useless. The infection usually lasts no more than two weeks, after which the person dies.
Bite a person begins to become inflamed, scratch, itching. This occurs even though the, If the bite is completely healed and the presence of infection is possible. If the bite was not, the redness and itching of the skin occurs in the place, which hit the saliva of rabid animal. There may be swelling and redness.
The temperature rises to a patient 37-37.5, thus there is a general weakness, drowsiness or insomnia, headaches, loss of appetite. The bite area also appear drawing pains. This period is characterized by the first symptoms of rabies in humans, expressed in violation of the mental state. There are anxiety and irrational fears, sometimes there are phobias and nightmares. A person can fall into apathy and become indifferent to everything, and may experience great anxiety. If the patient has been bitten on the face or neck, arise olfactory and auditory hallucinations: he mereschatsya smells and sounds, which is really no. Not excluded and visual hallucinations. At the end of this stage, the person comes out of apathy, if it was, It becomes anxious and restless, it markedly increase in breathing and heart rate. The duration of the precursors is from one to three days.
stage hydrophobia (excitation)
Bitten a person becomes extremely sensitive to sounds, smells, world, touch, while a particular dislike causes water, developed hydrophobia. When you try to take a sip of water in a patient there is a strong spasm of the airways and throat, which leads to transient asphyxia can cause emesis and. After a while one kind of water or noise is capable of causing a spasm. At this stage all the external stimuli cause spasms, even a weak gust of wind or a small sound can lead to seizures. Cramps are extremely painful for the infected, bring a lot of pain.
Tone of the sympathetic NA is growing rapidly, pupils significantly expand, and view tends to a single point, there exophthalmos (eyes strongly protrude). Pulse and heart rate soaring, increases blood pressure, breathing becomes frequent, surface. the patient's skin is covered with perspiration, Saliva is released in large quantities, dripping mouth, sometimes formed foam. At the same time the saliva is contagious to animals and humans, since it contains the rabies virus.
With increasing spasms of a person observed bouts of agitation, during which consciousness is impaired, and the patient can not completely control their actions. He can beat my head against the wall and floor, breaking furniture, tear his clothes, heart-rending cry, growl.
Rabies patient suffers frightening hallucinations, causing his aggression and terror. In this state, a person is able to cause harm to himself or others, central nervous system removes all the "stops", so the strength of a man is multiplied. During the most severe fits of possible respiratory arrest, People can die.
Between bouts to the patient regains consciousness, but these periods are becoming shorter and shorter. As a result, after one of the attacks of paralysis. Step hydrophobia lasts from one to four days.
stage of paralysis
The patient gradually paralyzed arm muscles, legs, eye, person, larynx, language, convulsions and seizures terminate, comes the so-called ominous calm. Dying is not detectable response to light and noise, not afraid of water. During this period, sometimes observed pelvic function, such as spontaneous ejaculation and priapism. Heart rate continues to rise, blood pressure decreases, the temperature reaches the limit values 41 – 42 degrees Celsius. Death occurs as a result of heart failure or paralysis of the respiratory system.
In extremely rare cases, the first two stages of the disease occur without symptoms, there is only a stage of paralysis. This clinical picture is often observed at bat bites, that can infect a sleeping man. In this case, the patient can be sure, that rabies appeared out of nowhere.
Important! The first symptoms - is 100% Warranty death, so as rabies can be treated only during the incubation period.
Prevention of rabies in humans
Since currently considered incurable disease rabies, the only way to protect themselves from it is timely vaccination.
After that, as a person bitten by an animal, behaving inappropriately, you need to clean the wound with soap, then treated with alcohol (70%) and iodine (5%) and as soon as possible to see a doctor.
At the hospital, the man introduced the vaccine against rabies (rabies vaccine) and treated the wound. In the case of severe injuries sutured. Rabies vaccine does not cause disease, as it is a virus strain, artificially bred and neutralized in the laboratory. The strain causes the production of antibodies, whereby a person is generated immunity to disease. Vaccine mixed with water in an amount 1 ml administered intramuscularly in the shoulder, children, has not attained the age of five, preparation is administered into the thigh. Within half an hour the patient is under medical supervision, as the common allergic reaction to the vaccine. Then you need to do on the bitten person vaccinated 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90 days after the first injection. During 9 months from the date of the bite is strictly forbidden to drink alcohol, and subjected to excessive loads, overheating and overcooling.
If there is such a possibility, you must observe the animal bites. If, within 10 days it feels good, it made only the first 3 injection.
Important! During the incubation period of the bitten person can not be infected, analysis for rabies and not show positive results. If you are bitten by an animal street, which behaves inappropriately, you must immediately seek medical attention and report the incident to the sanitary and epidemiological stations.
Who needs a rabies vaccination
Subject to mandatory vaccination of farm animals, as well as people, who work with them. Animals vaccinated once a year, and vaccinated against rabies person is in the first month 3 injection, then one injection a year, and after - every three years. Are required to undergo regular vaccination veterinarians. Hunters also desirable vaccinated, as the rabies among wild animals are often.
people, not associated with animals, there is no need to be vaccinated against rabies, since the probability of contracting them is very small.
As for pets, veterinarians strongly recommend to vaccinate pets annually. In particular this applies to dogs and cats, who daily go outdoors. cats, living at home, less risk, but it is advisable to vaccinate their.
Rabies - a fatal disease, medicines for which there is no. The only way to prevent the disease - it is timely vaccination. Upon contact with the animals, vaccination must be a regular, regardless of, I had a bite or not. Pets also need to be vaccinated, special, if they are walking on the street.