Chickenpox is ill one day everyone, and they occur most frequently in childhood. In this case, to understand, that the child is ill, is not easy - the incubation period for chickenpox in children lasts up to three weeks, while chickenpox symptoms in children are not certain before the onset of rash. Pathogen - a virus of the herpes family.
Important! Man extremely susceptible to it, animal, he has no action. It is believed, that suffer from chickenpox once in a lifetime, but about 3% convalescents can "catch" the disease again, sometimes in the form of shingles (in this disease the same pathogen).
How is the spread of the disease
Of contracting the disease is very easy, its pathogen is transmitted by airborne droplets, thus it may extend to distances between facilities over 20 m, and even if the doors are closed. Ways of infection:
- Get the virus can be in communication, and even a short contact. This can happen even in a public place, If there's a man, which is the incubation period.
- The virus can not survive outside the body, so the source of infection may be only cares at this point people.
- Therefore, when a kindergarten disease symptoms in a baby may be sure, sick that he is not alone.
- If a sick pregnant woman, Perhaps then transfer the virus fetus, while a woman can not get sick with chickenpox, and shingles, which causes the same pathogen. This is especially dangerous in the first trimester of pregnancy.
- Children up to six months, still have immunity, derived from mother (if it is ill with chicken pox in childhood), then they become susceptible to infection.
- In this summer of the likelihood of accidental contamination below.
Interestingly, in some countries there is no quarantine for children, patients with chickenpox. doctors believe, that it is better to have had a child, since it's pretty easy for most of the. get sick with chickenpox, as an adult, is much more difficult - in adulthood this disease changes its character and runs hard.
How is chickenpox in children
Once the virus is in the body takes place at least a week (this is the shortest incubation period), but most of this period takes two to three weeks. In this case, the parents are not even aware of the fact, that the child is ill with chickenpox, respectively, no action taken, no treatment.
Once the incubation period ends, the first signs of the disease. Not everyone knows, like chicken pox in children begins, since the very first symptoms initially be mistaken for colds.
- On the first day, may increase the temperature, usually to 37-37,50. However, there is, the temperature rises sharply up 390 , and some children chickenpox occurs without any temperature. So consider it a sign of chickenpox can not undisputed.
- reddish spots may appear on the body, which then disappear. In this short period of the initial stage of first signs of disease chickenpox may be adopted for other infectious disease, eg, skarlatinu.
- Headache, weakness, and seizures
- Lack of appetite, sleep disturbances
- Irritability, whims, bad mood
- Pulse begins to quicken, sometimes with the breath. Some time after the appearance of these signs (At first they can be mistaken for the common cold) Facial and body rash - the main symptom of chickenpox in a child. The rash spreads very quickly, It looks like a pink or red spots (cm. a photo).
- Wink, disease develops with great speed - even through 2-4 rash hour turns into a liquid-filled vesicles, that begin to itch unbearably. The initial stage may be passed chickenpox per day or even less. It is necessary to prevent scratching - a strong possibility of infection. If there is their festering, Transparent content becomes yellowish or white.
- The disease develops in waves, while the first wave of the rash dries up, and bubbles are covered by a crust, cover body starts fresh rash, and it starts all over again. The temperature is also not normal, and it takes at least 4-7 days. (The photo shows, It looks like a rash on the different stages of development)
- A week later, the disease starts to go into decline, New eruptions are getting smaller, then stop. At the final stage of chickenpox in place dried up bubbles after the falling away crusts are pink spots, which will soon disappear.
- Usually the child after chickenpox leave no trace. If a baby is very itchy and otkovyrival crust, in their place may be left small scars.
- Typically, the disease is within 10 days, since the first appearance of symptoms prior to closure of the new rash, then all the symptoms of chickenpox in children disappear. However, there may be variants disease duration, how many days it will last, determined by many factors.
varieties of chickenpox
There are three varieties of the disease, they are separated by severity, they too can begin in different ways.
The disease is characterized by the absence of temperature and very weak eruptions - there are only a few bubbles, and general activity of the virus is not more than three days. This form is more often in children, whose mothers had chickenpox long before pregnancy.
Course of the disease as standard - high, to 390 temperature, multiple bubbles, which in large quantities appear throughout the week.
This raises and other negative signs: restless sleep, poor appetite, headaches.
The temperature rises to the limit, to 400, vsploshnuyu body is covered with a rash. Waves of new eruptions may continue until 10 days, at the same time the rash appears and on the mucous membranes: in the mouth, on the genitals.
The probability of severe chickenpox in children above, whose mothers did not suffer from this disease.
A child can not eat, have nausea, vomiting, headache. Possibly fever with delirium. This form of chickenpox treated stationary.
How we treat
Important! Despite, This disease is generally known, and, basically, All parents know, how to treat chickenpox in children, Do not rely only on yourself. The baby can have individual characteristics, which will make the personal experience and knowledge of useless. The disease can take any form, and it is almost impossible to predict it.
How is the therapy:
- Chickenpox is not treated by conventional tablets. Antibiotics in this disease are appointed only when a festering in areas of scratching.
- What to do if the turbulent course of the disease, so it is to shoot down the temperature, and this can not be done the usual aspirin. You can apply "Nurofen" or "Paracetamol".
- The main drug, which is able to stop the chickenpox virus - a "Acyclovir", but for children it is assigned only in case of acute illness within. There are also versions of the drugs, they are appointed by the physician taking into account the patient's age and the nature of the disease.
- To reduce itching designate "Suprastin", "Diazolin", "Fenkarol". However, it is impossible to choose an antihistamine for the child, it must do doctor.
How to handle the wound
Despite the ridiculous and unsightly, which acquires baby rash after treatment zelenkoj (Brilliant green), this preparation is the best means for disinfection and drying wounds. No need to constantly apply Zelenka, one to two times a day is enough.
Besides, there are many modern drugs, suitable antiseptics, eg, fukorcin.
Well there is a special lotion "Calamine", which quickly dries bubbles, relieve itching, Besides, It has a cooling effect.
When the rash on the mucous membranes, eg, in the mouth, they can be treated with an aqueous solution of boric acid (on prescription).
Some additional information
- When the disease will subside, if conditions permit, no temperature, a child can begin to walk. Walking should be short and, possibly, active. In this case, the child should wear well, that he did not sweat much. In the summer should avoid exposure to direct sunlight. Contact with other children should not be, because the baby in this period is still contagious. It will take at least a week since the last eruption, to the child ceased to be infected.
- You need to drink as much as possible, suitable decoctions, teas with herbs, juices.
- As sick kid loses appetite, it is not necessary to feed him forcibly. From time to time you can offer him something, he loves - it should be light food: a fish, vegetable stew. You can also cook his porridge, he did not refuse to eat. Fruit is better to buy hypoallergenic, ie bananas, avocado and they, that do not cause an allergic reaction of the body. smoked food, pickles, fried foods for the period of illness is better to exclude.
- Baby with chickenpox can wash, but only in the shower, wherein the warm water must be, even slightly cool. You can instead of a shower to wash the baby gently weak solution of potassium permanganate,.
- Do not use soap and washcloth
- After washing of the body surface can be wet sheet or a soft towel, can not rub, as this may damage the wounds on the body.
On the possibility of water treatment is best to check with a doctor.
Vaccinations against chickenpox
Several years ago, it has developed a vaccination against chickenpox for children. it is made, starting at one year of age, if they have not already had the disease. Re-vaccinated doing in five years.
Can inculcate and adolescents and adults. To develop sustainable immunity procedure is carried out twice with an interval of a month.
Many parents are skeptical about vaccination, thinking, it only kills the natural immunity. However, most vaccinated children do not show any side effects and adverse effects, so it is quite convincing prevention of chickenpox in children. maybe, vaccination should be postponed, if the child is weak and often sick - about it is better to consult with the attending pediatrician.