Brucellosis - an infectious disease, cause it to bacteria of the genus Brucella. The disease is more characteristic of animals, but can be transmitted to humans. It runs hard, accompanied by numerous complications. Damaging effect on sexual, nervous, cardio-vascular system and the musculoskeletal system.
Pathogen and ways of infection
Pathogen Brucella bacteria, which enters the human body is extremely rare.
Fact! In developed countries, the number of infected is relatively small, per year in the US about 200 infections. In other countries, where the control of animal diseases is not so hard, brucellosis get sick much more often. "Leaders" - Portugal, North Africa, Turkey, Greece, Asia and the Middle East. Especially risky in these regions consume cheese, which is made from the local non-pasteurized milk.
- Through contaminated food and drinks.
- Through inhalation of bacteria.
- After the damaged areas kozhi.Samym common is the first embodiment. After all, if the sick animal, all products, that it provides, dangerous to health. Milk, meat, fat. In using these products without a preliminary heat treatment, People infected with the bacterium.
Two other cases of infection susceptible people, who work directly with animals - veterinarians and employees of downhole shops.
note! Cases of brucellosis transmission from person to person: sexual contact and breastfeeding.
carriers of infection, as mentioned, It is livestock. Pathogen excreted through the urine of the animal patient, feces and milk, if the animal it gives.
Fact! Brucella is not destroyed even after freezing.
Cow's milk or goat remains contagious even a month after milking, when it obtained from animal patient. Bacteria without any problems remain viable in the soil and water to 5 months. For six months, they survive in frozen dairy products and meat.
Penetrating into the body, pathogen spreads throughout the body. As the "transport" are used lymph ducts and blood vessels. Foci of infection quickly arise in the spleen, lymph nodes, liver and bone marrow.
Simultaneously there is a nervous system damage, musculoskeletal system and genitals. Protective body reaction occurs, but often the immune system can not cope with such a large-scale attack. The reason for this is not only the rapid spread, but also the constant transformation of the pathogen.
Important! brucellosis treatment should be carried out exclusively in hospital, otherwise, the disease becomes chronic, which is much more difficult to cope. Also a strong influence on the human body, Chronic brucellosis may provoke the development of other diseases, and it is a huge threat to human.
Symptoms of various forms of brucellosis
Patients with brucellosis are beginning to feel the first signs of the presence of the pathogen through 7-21 day. In some cases, the incubation period of a few months.
note! Symptoms of brucellosis in humans are often unexpected and different - it is very much complicates diagnosis.
During brucellosis can be expressed in such forms:
- acute. lasts up 1,5 of the month. Symptoms of brucellosis - a lack of appetite, headaches, pronounced or sluggish insomnia. For such a form is characterized by general weakness and irritability. Maybe chills. Increasing the temperature to 40 degrees, and this may be a transient increase, Holding such an index for a while or wave-like surges. Also likely stretching sore muscles, observed symptoms of intoxication.
note! The acute form is developing rapidly in young people, than older.
- Subacute form - its duration to 4 months. For her symptoms somewhat different: jumps temperatures during 24 hours, pain in the bones, muscles and joints. The appetite is significantly reduced. The patient has a constant thirst, constipation, a feeling of dryness in the mouth, skin allergies. This phase is characterized by lesions of the musculoskeletal system.
- The chronic form has periods of exacerbation and remission. Especially strongly affects the nervous system. The man likely to develop hearing disorders, of view. On the part of the musculoskeletal system - the deformation and destruction of the spine, neuroses. Significant effect on the genitourinary system.
Important! After suffering brucellosis likely irreversible changes - arthrosis, ankilozы, hormonal disruptions.
How dangerous brucellosis in children
Children rarely adults pick up this disease. Infection occurs via the drinking pasteurized whole milk and milk products from infected animal. Brucella deposited in the liver, spleen and lymph nodes. Here they create foci of infection, which are able to migrate to the bones and the nervous system.
Often in children for pulmonary disease. First, the temperature rises, increased lymph nodes, liver and spleen. The child complains of weakness. Significantly reduced appetite and lethargy, heavy sweating.
Bones and genitals are affected not so much, However, the transition in the chronic phase leads to the chronic joint diseases and infertility. And the continued presence of Brucella in the child's body lowers immunity, It promotes the development of allergies.
Upon detection of even a few symptoms, the above, you must consult your doctor immediately. Laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis include blood analysis, urine, bone marrow. Bacteriological method to determine the type and kind of pathogen, that will assign adequate treatment. Also used serological and allergological methods.
Important! Problems in the diagnosis lies in the fact, that the symptoms of brucellosis is very similar to flu symptoms.
In urban settings, brucellosis prevention is quite simple. But in rural areas, where there is a large spread of animal, it is complicated. The main task - is the timely identification of focal distribution and its elimination.
On the territory of identifying disease quarantine. Its essence - the restriction of movement vectors of disease. In this case, all the animals are examined by a veterinarian. people, that may be contaminated, prescribed a course of antibiotics lasting 10 days.
Also carried out vaccination, vaccinated against brucellosis includes in its membership a special way dried and frozen Brucella. such pathogens, penetrating the body, contribute to the development of immunity, which will quickly destroy a live Brucella, if she really gets into the body. Term development of immunity around 1 of the month, such vaccination is sufficient for 1 year.
Other preventive measures include:
- Heat treatment of milk, meat and other animal products.
- Veterinary Animal Control.
- education measures for the people living and working with animals and animal products.
note! Vaccinations animal mass character currently considered are ineffective.
The specificity of the treatment
the main objective, pursued by the treatment of brucellosis, - is the destruction of the pathogen, which has penetrated into the body. At first appointed antibiotics tetracycline group. length of treatment 3-4 of the week, it is accompanied by supportive care.
After the disappearance of acute symptoms is carried out vaccination in order to avoid re-infection.
Fact! The likelihood of re-infection after vaccination is 10%.
The acute form
It requires use of antibiotics in large doses. If you cancel or insufficient dosage drugs will transition to the chronic form of the disease the use of antibiotics Options:
- tetracycline in 0,5 mg, every 6 hours for 3-6 weeks.
- Biseptol on 6 tablets per day for 4 weeks. If we add to this course Rifampicin (900 mg per day), treatment result will be better.
Receiving the full course of medication virtually eliminates recurrence.
The chronic form
Antibiotics in this case did not show effectiveness. Patients assigned vaccinotherapy, which stimulates the immune system. treatment regimen:
- complex vitamins, non-specific stimulators of hematopoiesis.
- In winter, be sure the total UV radiation.
- Kortikosteroidы, in the case of pronounced inflammatory changes. course duration 2-3 of the week.
For the use of vaccine killed (healing) vaccine. Live used only for the purposes of prevention.
Treatment of brucellosis in humans is complex and long-term. Lack of support leads to serious disturbances in the different systems of the body. Although it is unlikely to pick up and Brucella, You need to be alert. Do not drink raw milk, and the meat to expose a heat treatment. Upon detection of even a few symptoms, immediately contact your doctor. Self-medication and traditional methods in this case are not working, but only aggravate the disease.