skin mycosis, He also dermatophytosis, or, as it is called, epidermomycosis, skin fungus - is a fungal infection of the skin, characterized by specific clinical signs. The most common are several varieties of skin mycosis:
- microsporia (more commonly known as "shingles");
- Candidiasis (in everyday life - "thrush");
- Pityriasis versicolor;
- And mycosis feet and hands, stand out among all skin dermatofitozov as independent nosological.
We should also mention the so-called mycosis fungoides or illness aliber. It is a malignant tumor disease, referring to T-lymphomas and affecting predominantly men aged 40 to 60 years old. Despite, that the disease is quite rare, and in fact does not apply to the skin fungal infections, for it must be remembered, as the timely diagnosis of mycosis fungoides in the starting phase allows to treat it and to achieve long-term remission of the disease. Whereas in the process of running the forecast is, Alas, It has adverse.
Many people do not realize, It might look like skin mycosis. A photo, presented below, It shows some of the manifestations of this multifaceted disease.
factors, provoking the development of clinical signs of disease groups, under the general title "tinea corporis", are:
- immunodeficiency states (including those caused by prolonged use of corticosteroids in the treatment of systemic diseases);
- Weakening the protective properties of the body after / during prolonged use of certain drugs (eg, cytostatics or antibiotics);
- Excessive use of local antiseptics (antibacterial soap as a daily dressing, too often used sanitizer gels lead to, that the patient develops skin mycosis of hands);
- flatfoot, narrow interdigital spaces;
- neurological diseases;
- Pathology metabolism;
- hormonal disruptions, bursts, age-related changes in hormonal background of the patient;
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- dental caries;
- Sometimes the cause of the disease may become certain characteristics of an organism. There is a category of people, prone to fungal diseases - people with excessive sweating of the feet and hands skin;
- skin Microtrauma may facilitate entry into infectious agent;
- Bad habits, unbalanced diet, leading to a deficiency in the body of vitamins and minerals.
note! In the absence of impact on the human body above factors, even in direct contact with the pathogen - infection, probably, will not happen, will work as the body's defenses (local immunity). Therefore it is very important to maintain the normal functioning of the immune system of the patient - of course, so, as far as possible in each case.
Today, public health, Alas, is such, that the mycosis of nails and skin can get sick almost every, They are no exception and children. Infection fungal infection occurs mainly in the following situations::
- Close contact with the patient, already suffering from fungal disease. Using his personal hygiene items, the use of his combs (so it is most commonly transmitted fungal infection of the scalp), towel, toothbrush, wearing his clothes and shoes, his skin touch. Mycosis in this case extends from the smallest particles contaminated skin. This often happens in public transport, when ill patient, not caring about others, It does not cover the bandage the affected area;
- Close contact with sick animals. In some cases, stray animals (significantly to a greater extent this applies to cats) They are native fungus, Which can, of course, hit and pets, especially in disorders of the immune system;
- Visiting public saunas, pools, beaches and other places with large concentrations of people with mostly open parts of the body - no doubt also be an additional risk factor for tinea infection, most of tinea pedis skin.
In the last few years the number of patients with vulvovaginal lesions of the skin significantly increased. experts say, that the cause is:
- Mass uncontrolled use of antibiotics;
- Environmental risks;
- A large number of stressful situations in the life of the population, disturbed sleep and rest.
In some cases, nail fungus and skin can not disturb the patient, leaking mild, without causing any discomfort. So patients do not seek help from your doctor in good time, at the initial stage of the disease, which leads to a chronic process. Subsequently advanced disease amenable to treatment worse, than if, when adequate treatment was administered on time.
Council! When you see you have signs of mycotic lesions (even a small area of skin or nail), do not attempt to treat this disease, and refer to a specialist.
At all, the severity of symptoms is always dependent on the particular form of skin mycosis.
note! When mycotic lesions of the scalp are in the pathological process involved not only the skin itself, but also hair.
For this reason, for the timely diagnosis of fungal infection to the patient is required to regularly self-examination, without waiting for the manifestation of intense burning and itching.
Fungal infection has a number of common symptoms, discovering at that, the patient may already suspect developing a fungal infection:
- Defeat can be located:
- in the area of smooth skin (neck, chest, face, forearm),
- on the scalp,
- in the groin, popliteal folds, in the interdigital spaces;
- Pockets of mycotic lesions often have:
- round shape,
- oval shape;
- Often on the periphery of the roller is determined by the red (cm. a photo);
- Coating of spots can vary from cyanotic reddish-pink to pale;
- Eruptions often be shelled;
- Painful at vskryvanii blisters (mainly - on the feet, racemes);
- Rash on the sides of the fingers (which is also generally characteristic of mycosis of hands and feet);
- itch, scratching (especially for skin mycosis of hands and feet).
Accurately diagnose mycosis help technique of microscopic examination, which makes it possible to identify the presence of fungal spores in the patient's skin integument.
Modern methods of treatment for all types of dermatophytosis should be directed to the most rapid elimination from the organism of an infectious agent and eliminating factors, provoking disease (sweating, metabolic disorders, hormonal disruptions, etc.).
First of all, mycosis treatment is aimed at destruction of the actual fungus and spores. For this purpose there:
- preparations, applied topically;
- systemic medications, are taken into (or rarely - administered by injection).
Therapy is prescribed depending on the type of fungus and the extent of damage. With deep skin lesions or disseminated mycosis often assigned a combination of local and systemic drugs.
At the same time the doctor prescribes keratolytic agents, improves the process of renovation of the skin in areas of his defeat. The selection of appropriate drugs is exclusively dermatologist (mykoloh), self same only leads to waste of time and health.
Important! It must be remembered, that often treatment of mycosis of the skin with the help of public money causes, that the patient is only "pushes" into an infection, at best, it does not give any results. Therefore, for any suspected ringworm should consult a doctor as soon as possible.
Folk remedies also can be used by the patient to enhance the therapeutic effect, but only after consultation with the doctor, and in combination with a basic therapy, and in any case not as the primary method of treatment.
- local treatment It is carried out using external antifungal drugs, containing active ingredients in high concentrations.
They are applied to the affected skin, is a reservoir of a large number of fungi. Even with long-term use of local drugs side effects are extremely rare.
In the appointment of external resources allows for physician concomitant somatic pathology, drug interaction with other drugs, the possibility of developing allergies, the patient's age and other factors. Most of the local antifungals has a fairly broad spectrum of action with respect not only to mushrooms, but also to the bacterial flora, often complicated for mycosis.
Today in the arsenal of dermatologists have a very rich selection of antifungal topical preparations, produced in the form of solutions, ointments, creams, paints and powders. The most popular are the following officinal means, used mostly in the form of solutions, lacquers and creams:
- terbinafine (lamifen);
- econazole (ekodaks);
Such formulations possess a high activity against most fungal species, and the concentration of the antifungal component, produced by them on the surface of the lesion - is quite high and is sufficient to suppress the vital activity of fungal infections of pathogens.
Treatment is appointed for a sufficiently long-term (Course is from 3-4 weeks or more and is held in the mode of two-fold of the drug per day).
- systemic treatment is assigned to a patient with lesions of the nail, scalp, as well as the involvement of the large areas of the skin. Systemic therapy promotes penetration of antifungals through the blood to the nidus. And also when systemic treatment is provided accumulation of the drug in the horny substances in concentrations, repeatedly exceeding the minimum quantity of substance, you need to stop the fungus vital functions.
If a species of fungus is not installed, patient is assigned preparation of broad-spectrum. In modern medical practice, dermatologists often used:
- griseofulvin (mostly it is administered to children, as the safest antifungal systemic medication);
- itraconazole (orungal);
- ketoconazole (nizoral).
Important! Systemic antifungal drugs is associated with an increased risk of certain toxic and other side effects. reception rate may last for many months.
Therefore, systemic therapy will be temporarily contraindicated in pregnant women and nursing mothers.
Besides, such drugs with great caution and under constant supervision of a physician can be assigned to people, having comorbidities kidney and liver, as well as the, who has a history of drug allergy symptoms.
As a complement folk remedies can be applied to the basic scheme of treatment:
- Pine liqueur. Pine needles and cones in the amount of 250 g was placed in a jar and poured alcohol. Capacity is closed and insist in a dark place for two weeks. The resulting infusion is filtered and stored in a refrigerator strictly. Affected areas lubricated swab, dipped in tincture, twice a day.
- vinegar baths. Tablespoon of vinegar (not to be confused with the vinegar essence) diluted in a liter of water. The affected area should be in this solution for 20 minutes.
After the bath the skin is advisable to oil camphor spirit.
- As an additional method of treatment of mycotic lesions of the scalp, a mixture of juices - lemon and garlic - in combination with olive oil (all the ingredients are mixed in equal proportions). Remedy is applied to the lesion site and left an hour under a cellophane film, and then wash off with shampoo. The hair is then rinsed with a solution of this procedure, consisting of 1 l of water and 2 tablespoons of vinegar.
Fungus in children
Of all the fungal diseases in children is most common mikrosporiya or simply - Ringworm. The causative agent is a fungus with its innocuous title "fluffy mikrosporum", which is a parasite including animal skin (often - cats), which are often the source of infection.
Infection occurs during close contact with an ill person or animal, as well as with objects, obsemenennыmy hrybkovыmy disputes. Children often become infected after joint games in the sandbox. Microspores can be stored for a long time in the sand (to 10 years old).
Eruptions on the smooth parts of the child's skin when microsporia occur a week after infection. are hallmarks microsporia:
- rounded (oval) hearth shape;
- Pink-red lesion;
- Clear limits on the background of healthy skin;
- The characteristic of the roller hearth periphery;
- bubbles, crust on the surface of the hearth;
- Desquamation in the central part of the affected area;
- The size of the affected area about 1-2 cm;
- Involvement in the pathological process of vellus hair (at 90% cases).
How to treat a child?
- If vellus hair at the site of defeat intact (that is healthy), the child shall be appointed only local antifungal drugs:
- The alcoholic solution of iodine for use in the morning for several days;
- In the evening - the sulfur-salicylic ointment;
- Antifungal drugs outside the scheme, prescribed by the doctor.
- If the process is already involved vellus hair, the more often your child is prescribed medication system - Griseofulvin - under the control of the biochemical analysis of blood and with the appointment of a special diet.
Simultaneously with systemic medications your child is prescribed topically applying to the affected skin with keratolytics (solutions of benzoic acid or salicylic acid).
To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment, the doctor conducts a visual inspection of the child's skin with a fluorescent lamp. Besides, They can be produced with microscopic lesions scrapings.
Analyzes made under the scheme:
- After elimination of clinical manifestations of mycoses;
- Through 4 the day after the first analysis, showed negative;
- later 3 days after the last study.
Microsporia can be considered cured, when:
- Not detected skin lesions;
- No typical glow when viewed with a Wood's lamp;
- By microscopic study conducted in triplicate yielded negative results.
For the full disposal of cutaneous fungal infections will need to not only get treatment, but also to comply with further preventive measures:
- Do not use someone else's clothes and hygiene items;
- After direct contact with animals wash hands thoroughly, and if the animal belongs to you - make him vaccinated against dermatomycosis in a veterinary clinic;
- Timely pay attention to the athlete's foot symptoms themselves and their families, and when they appear immediately consult your doctor;
Important! If you have already once been treated for mycosis, should not "prescribe" the same pattern of yourself or your loved ones in cases of suspected disease. Refer to the skilled!
- Around the middle of the course to make boiling bed and underwear (and hats) during 15 minutes in a soap-soda solution;
- To iron all the clothes of the patient through a damp gauze fivefold;
- As often as possible to make wet cleaning with disinfectants;
- It is very desirable to treat and furniture (possible by irrigation).