Thrush in the mouth in children occurs due to propagation in the mucosa of the genus Candida fungi, hence its scientific name - candidiasis. These microbes live on the skin, in the vagina, in the oral cavity and nasopharynx, and also in the vagina in 70-80% the population. And the majority of people, these microorganisms do not cause those unpleasant symptoms, that occur in patients with candidiasis.
Most of the disease susceptible infants. 20% kids to 1 , in one form or another tolerate oral thrush, and some time to recover before the age of one year, three times or more. The reasons for this age feature is, that local immunity of the mouth of young patients has not yet been formed in full, and microflora, located in the oral cavity in children grudnichkovogo age - still continues to undergo changes. Besides, epithelium, lining the oral surface toddler, It is formed not entirely. Therefore, there is no reason to worry, When thrush appeared before the age of one year in the mouth of a child.
But, If your child has already turned 2 of the year, recently he has not been treated with antibiotics, and at the same time you notice his characteristic sign of thrush - whitish coating in the mouth - it is an occasion for, to seek medical advice.
What is Candida and causes of candidiasis
celled fungus, which there 150 species, of which 20 can cause in the human pathological processes - this is candida.
Candida albicans is the most common representative of this kind, and thrush in the child's mouth is caused by them is. The inactive form of this microorganism has a circular or oval shape, and is part of the normal microflora.
but, any good it does not bring the body, and under suitable conditions begin to proliferate rapidly, become a cause of candidiasis.
Candida prefer to dwell in an alkaline medium, i.e, when establishing a pH of from 7,8 to 8,5. Such conditions in the mouth of child abuse occur in sweet and generally any products, relating to simple carbohydrates. Their "favorite" for the development and optimum temperature is 30-37 ° C.
If a child has violated a general or local immunity, or there are other factors, promotes the growth of the fungus, if the Candida begins to transform. Cells were drawn fungus, acquiring a kind of oval rods. When seen microscopy, they, multiply, bud and form new colonies in a long "chains", called pseudomycelia (cm. a photo)
Candida introduced into the epithelial layer of the oral mucosa and pharynx, and, multiply, destroy nearby tissue. It is intense selection of enzymatic agent, cleaving proteins, carbohydrates and fat tissues of human body.
This process leads to the appearance of symptoms - dryness, burning and pain, child shows concern, kapriznichaet, breastfeed and bottle or refuses to receive normal food. baby's body temperature may be slightly elevated, or, in severe cases,, reaches a 39 C or higher.
Why disease develops:
- Continued formation of the protective properties of the mucosa in infants (immature mucosa).
- immunocompromised, immunodeficiency states.
- Pregnancy, coupled with the change in hormonal expectant mother, readjusting metabolism and decreased immunity (candidiasis pregnant).
- comorbidities: HIV, tuberculosis, diseases of the adrenal glands and the digestive system. In rare cases, a child's oral candidiasis is one of the first signs of diabetes.
- Passage of the child treatment drugs, having immunosuppressive action: corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs.
- Prolonged courses of antimicrobials. After antibiotics normal microflora composition is usually severely impaired. and mildew, not having a bacterial "competitors", beginning to breed in the mouth.
- Dysbacteriosis deficiency of B vitamins, RR and S.
- Radiation therapy of cancer patients.
- Microtrauma oral mucosa - both due to malocclusion, and the presence of the child's damaged teeth.
- wearing braces. If braces bad fit, they can injure the mucosa. In rare cases, allergic reactions and develop materials such systems.
- Candidiasis baby can become infected by another person. This occurs at the time of delivery when the penetration of fungi from the vagina of mother-to-child. Besides, Transmission is possible with a child licks nipples, sharing dishes, and so on.
Symptoms and types of candidiasis
There are the following forms of the disease:
- The acute form:
- thrush or candidiasis acute pseudomembranous, which will be discussed;
- Acute atrophic candidiasis.
- The chronic form:
- candidiasis chronic hyperplasia;
- chronic candidiasis with atrophy.
Important! These forms can occur both independently, and transform into each other, so you can not in any case let the process take its course.
- In the first stage of the disease right diagnosis is difficult. The mucous membrane of the mouth of the child blushes, but its bloom yet.
- After a few days in the mouth appear plaque elements, resembling at first grains of semolina.
- Further, these elements increase, acquiring mouth view foams or lactic curds residues. At this stage, they can be easily removed. Below them are seen portions of saturated red color, sometimes slightly bleeding.
- If at this stage, do nothing, the small spots increase in size and gradually merge. Such plaque gradually covers the entire surface of the mouth, having eroded areas. In places deep ulcerations blood stains the plaque in a specific brownish color. Plaque is removed already seriously, there is bleeding gums.
note! Sometimes babies formed in corners of the mouth candidosis perleche, which may also be coated with coating. Skin around hyperemic, eating and speaking child complains of discomfort. perleches (pictured below) most often appear thrush those kids, who are used to thumb sucking or pacifier. In older children, this phenomenon is often associated with addiction to chewing gum.
As a result, systemic exposure to the fungus develops a common allergy body of the child, his immune system is depleted and the body is exposed to the toxic effects of products, allocated Candida. So the question - how to get rid of this insidious organism - is extremely important for parents of young patients.
- visual inspection. In most cases the diagnosis can be made after examination of the oral mucosa. It can be seen by its bloom white. After removing formed in its place red mucosal bleeding portion.
- microscopy. Confirmation of the diagnosis is made by microscopic examination of the affected tissues.
- In some cases, the doctor prescribes additional diagnostic procedures, aimed at identifying such complications, like esophageal candidiasis, pharynx and others.:
- The study of culture from the throat;
- esophageal radiography with contrast.
before, than cure, properly, thrush, or at least simultaneously with its treatment, We need to eliminate manifestations of chronic diseases and other precipitating factors. for example, It should be adjusted to malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, largely contributing to the development of candidiasis, visit a specialist to correct the shape unfortunate set of braces, etc.. P. Timely rehabilitation of mouth on this issue in general is of paramount importance.
It is necessary to constantly monitor the health of baby teeth and gums, and, if your baby has grown up, teach him to independent hygiene practices.
Treating thrush spends periodontist or dentist, and in severe cases, the patient's infection spread in charge of infectious diseases or mycologist.
There are two ways to treat yeast infection in children in the mouth:
- local treatment;
- general medicine.
- Local treatment involves the use of drugs, acting directly on the mucosa and does not penetrate the blood. These drugs are aimed at suspending the growth and reproduction of the fungus, removal of unpleasant symptoms and healing of injuries, which were caused by Candida:
- Known agent for the local treatment of thrush - is aniline dyes. Very effective is the treatment with methylene blue foci, and brilliant green solution fukortsinom.
- The traditional way is to apply the local treatment applications with iodine preparations: Lugol's solution and Yoditsirinom. AND, judging from the reviews, This old method is still quite effective.
- Pelletized form of lysozyme or Lizak recommended for the resolution and has a bactericidal effect on damaged areas of the mucous.
- Nystatin ointment or ointment levorin shown for use in Hale and perleches.
- Thrush as topical agents are shown in alkaline solutions and disinfectants, which must be processed by rinsing the oral cavity. This helps to eliminate plaque, Destruction of fungi clusters, relief of inflammation and accelerate the healing process of the mucous. These tools include:
- sodium tetraborate or 2% rr borax;
- ordinary baking soda (2% rr sodium hydrogencarbonate);
- boric acid (also 2% it rr);
- water solution iodinol.
Rinse should be carried out with 2-3 hourly intervals, and after meals and at bedtime. If your child can not even rinse your mouth with himself, you should wipe the affected areas of cotton-gauze, liberally soaked in one of the following solutions. The course is 7-14 days. Getting rid of the symptoms, do not rush to cancel your child taking the drug, do it ahead of time, you should not.
- General treatment of candidiasis is taking drugs, providing a systemic effect on the organism. They not only destroy micro-organisms, inhabiting the oral mucosa, but also to relieve the child from all carriers of the fungus.
note! Some of these drugs have a lower age limit and are not appointed for children under a certain age without a life reading!
common action antifungal agents are divided into 2 groups:
- antibiotics polyene series;
For drugs group 1 include drugs Nystatin and Levorinum. Their appointed interior 4-6 p / CST then accepts whining in leak. 2 weeks. It recommended resolution tablets to enhance their effect. already on 5 Deadline for a noticeable improvement.
If this treatment has not given good results, the assigned I / Amphotericin B injection or Amphoglucaminum in tablet form. The drug is taken twice a day after meals in tech. two weeks.
For imidazoles include - clotrimazole, miconazole, Econazole and others. The dosage depends on the age and weight of the baby's body, and treatment averages 1-3 of the week.
Fluconazole is indicated for children and the severity of the process is a very effective tool to combat thrush. As for the prevention of yeast infection in children, located on antibiotic, are assigned to fluconazole in a dosage 3-5 mg 1 kg weight, 1 p / day.
Dekaminovaya candy shown for the resolution on the cheek 1-2 PC., rate in the 10- 14 days.
In order to raise the immunity of children prescribed vitamin B (B2, AT 6), RR and S.
It is also recommended monthly course of reception of calcium gluconate. As an antihistamine therapy prescribed Suprastin, diphenhydramine, Pïpolfen, Fenkarol.
Many kids are shown and iron preparations (for example, pills Ferropleks), since Candida, affecting the metabolic processes, reduces the level of iron in the blood.
In some cases, administration of drugs is shown pentoxy, and Methyluracil. They contribute to the development of the activation of gamma globulin and leukocytes, provide protection against fungal infections.
There are many effective ways to treat candidiasis folk remedies, which can be supplemented with the prescribed treatment:
- 1 Article. calendula flowers pour a spoonful of 1 a glass of boiling water, wrapped or placed in a thermos bottle and infused for 1 o'clock. As an option - 1 no. spoon of alcohol tinctures of calendula flowers in divorces 1 glass of water. It is used in a rinse or mucous swab every rubdowns 3-4 hour for two weeks. As a result of the treatment of the fungus dies and reduces inflammation.
- Cranberry juice and juice viburnum held in the mouth as long as possible or used as a rinse. The course of treatment is not less than 1 of the month.
- Broth Hypericum applied as a rinse and plaque removal after rubbing. To cook 1 Article. spoon herbs placed in 200 ml of water and boiled for 10 min. Course - in 5-6 p / day 2 of the week.
- Broth ledum also used as a rinse or rubs. 20 g of dry grass pour 200 ml of boiling water and boiled 15 min. To achieve the destruction of the fungus, and relapse prevention recommended course of at least 10 days.
- Decoction of oak bark: take 20 Mr. bark, placed in 200 ml of water and heated on a steam bath for 30 min, strain. The resulting broth to moisten cotton-gauze and apply it to the affected area of the mucous. repeat 3-4 p / day for three weeks. can be used 6-8 p / day in the form of rinses.
Diet is of great importance in the treatment of thrush. At the time of treatment is necessary to transfer the child to a semi-liquid food warm, abandoning spices and acidic foods. If the child is still being breastfed, then for about 3 months nursing mother will have to follow a special diet.
After recovery, a list of used products can be expanded, but, at least 3 of the month, and sometimes for a year will have to be excluded from your baby's diet those foods, which may trigger the return of the disease.
so, should limit or completely refuse from: yeast dough, confectionery, oily fish and meat, sweet fruit, smoked meats and spices, fried foods, tea, coffee, mushroom, cocoa, sweet drinks, mayonnaise and ketchup.
can be used: cereal porridges and soups, liver, lean meats and low-fat fish, greenery, vegetables (particularly useful carrots and garlic), herbal teas and juices, dairy products, nuts, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, oils (coconut, olive, linseed), unsweetened fruit and berries (cowberry, cranberry, bilberry, currant).
Dieting combined with drug therapy and treatment with home remedies facilitates the speedy recovery of the child.
Prevention of thrush in the mouth of a child rests on the shoulders of parents. The leading role played by personal hygiene: everyday shower and hygiene of the mother's breast before each feeding. It is necessary to boil or handle 2% solution of baking soda baby pacifiers, nipples on bottles, his dishes. It is not recommended to co-bathing your child or his pacifier obsasyvanie. Since most adults - carriers of candida, you need to carefully monitor the, not to transfer them to your baby.
The menu of the child must always be present products, rich in lactic acid microorganisms. This further supports the immune system.
Young parents are encouraged to maintain an active lifestyle, as often as possible to visit with a child outdoors, which will also contribute to the development of the immune system of the baby.
Thrush in the mouth in most cases - it is a signal, indicating a decrease in immunity, and increased risk of various diseases.