Sinusitis - inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, the cause of which may be viral or bacterial infection. Sinusitis in children often occurs as a complication of SARS, peel, scarlet fever and other common diseases. Sometimes, inflammation may be triggered by an allergic reaction, but then still attached bacterial component. Inflammatory process, flowing in diseases of the molars of the upper jaw in some cases can also be a cause of sinusitis.
Predisposing factors for the development of sinusitis are:
- Deviated septum;
- Pathology of the nasal cavity and other parts of the facial skull;
- weakened immune system.
classification of sinusitis
For the duration of flow:
- Acute (lasts up 3 months, less often);
- Chronic (It lasts longer than 3 months, characterized by recurrent relapses emerging).
According to the symmetry of the sinuses involved in the process:
- The one-sided - when he struck one of the paired sinuses:
- Bilateral. When bilateral sinusitis, respectively, two pairs of sinus are involved in the inflammatory process.
- Allergic (under the influence of inhaled allergen);
- mixed type;
Localization of the inflammatory process:
- Sinusitis - inflammation originates in the frontal sinus;
- antritis - the most "popular" form of sinusitis - is a disease of the maxillary sinus;
- Sphenoiditis - inflammation begins in the paranasal sinuses facial skull, namely klinovidnoy bones;
- Ethmoiditis - in this case struck labyrinth ethmoid sinus.
The disease develops so:
- From nasal infectious agent penetrates into the sinus, or opportunistic microorganisms, already on the mucous begin to multiply rapidly due to decreased immunity of the child;
- Mucosal edema occurs and breaks the natural ventilation of the sinuses;
- The outflow of contents also disturbed sine;
- The accumulated mucous secretion abscesses, toxins, secreted by microorganisms, enter the bloodstream.
Symptoms of sinusitis at the child will vary depending on:
- The forms of the disease - for the acute process is characterized by severe symptoms, and the symptoms can be erased in the chronic form;
- The age of the baby -
- Children under 3 s still evolving sinuses. Therefore, children in this age group the main cause of inflammation are infectious diseases of viral nature and adenoids.
note! Symptomatology of the disease in young children is likely to be erased, and the temperature may be substantially normal or subfebrile.
Often complicated sinusitis otitis media (most often it occurs in infants), as the infectious agent does not cost anything to get out of the nasal cavity to the middle ear through the eustachian still wide tube baby.
- In children of school age and older all sinus already fully formed, and equally susceptible to inflammation. These children are more likely to develop the disease process in several sinuses (sided sinusitis and polisinusit), and in some cases - even all at once sinuses (pansinusit).
Characteristic signs of inflammation sinuses are:
- continuing more 2 runny weeks;
- Purulent nasal yellow-green;
- Headache, facial pain;
- Loss of smell or a significant reduction in its;
- nasal voice;
- Difficulty breathing through the nose;
- Deterioration in the evening;
- The temperature increase during acute sinusitis to 38-39 0WITH;
- Normal or low-grade fever with chronic process;
- Loss of appetite;
- sleep disturbances;
- Cough, a feeling of dryness in the throat, more pronounced at night;
methods of diagnosis
In addition to collecting anamnesis parents little patient, ENT doctor made his examination of the nasal cavity (rhinoscopy). If the child - Sinusitis, the doctors found swelling, hyperemia and mucous large amount of mucous in the nasal cavity contents. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes a sinus x-ray which will be visible thickening of the inflamed mucosa and the liquid level in the sinuses.
In general, the analysis of the blood of the child is determined by the increased number of white blood cells and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Important! To detect the presence of non-inflammatory sinusitis, which occurs when a deviated septum and sinus polyps, the physician must assign child MRI or CT, to help detect abnormalities to determine further treatment strategy.
With the localization of inflammation in the maxillary sinuses are often appointed their puncture, which is made:
- medicinally (purulent contents removed and washing is carried out with antiseptic Sine),
- for diagnostic purposes (made tank inoculation flora of the sinus with the definition of the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics).
Many parents are afraid to carry out this procedure, but, these fears are not justified. In some cases, puncturing the sinus allows you to avoid the development of really serious complications and later the more radical surgery. by the way, now enjoys great prestige among modern parents a well-known pediatrician Dr. Komarovsky confirms, not an opponent of sinus puncture.
Important! Treatment of sinusitis in children absolutely do not produce their own shows!
Only a specialist can determine, how to cure a specific disease form, correctly diagnose a variety of disease.
As a result of the treatment of the following objectives to be achieved:
- Recover breathing through the nose;
- Eliminate most of the pathogen or other reason of a pathological condition;
- To stop the inflammatory process;
- Carry out prevention of complications - so, to cured sinusitis no longer return.
Conservative treatment of sinusitis is:
- antibiotics (Amoksiklav - suspension, Augmentin, ampicillin or Sumamed, azithromycin, Clarithromycin and other antibacterial drugs, depending on the sensitivity to them of the infectious agent). Sometimes broad-spectrum drugs should be appointed urgently - before the results of the tank-seeding;
- A short course of vasoconstrictive drops (Otryvyn, Ksimelin, Nazivin, Tizi-xylene, Naftizin, Sanorin et al.) Before burying the baby's head drops incline to one side or stacked on the side of him. Burying produce on the nasal septum, and then pressed a finger to her nose wing. The same thing is repeated on the other side;
Important! Course vasoconstrictor drops should not exceed a few days!
- After applying drops, constricts blood vessels, nose buried antiseptic preparations (Kollargol, Ekteritsid, Protargolum) or local antimicrobial Bioparox. So we can help your child cope with inflammation;
- Antihistamine drugs (Claritin, Tsetryn, suprastin, fenistil, Tavegil);
- physiotherapy (Quartz nasal tube, UVCh, darsonval, electrophoresis with drugs, laser therapy, ultrasound therapy);
note! If we are dealing with a lack of purulent sinusitis outflow, then physiotherapy will be temporarily contraindicated!
- If the cause of sinusitis is deep caries or other dental pathology, then the cause of the disease is eliminated by a dentist or orthodontist;
- Folk remedies should be appointed only after consultation with the ENT doctor to avoid worsening of the current process. Usually allowed inhalation with decoctions of medicinal herbs: chamomile, calendula, sage, cooked according to package directions;
- Breathing exercises.
In the absence of the desired effect from conservative methods - is a sine puncture and washing with a solution of antibiotic.
Protect the baby from sinusitis will help the following precautions:
- Spend the treatment of any infectious disease of the child strictly according to the doctor's recommendations;
- Be sure to contact your doctor if prolonged colds;
- Keep track of your baby nourished;
- monitor compliance with child day regimen;
- Conduct regular wet cleaning in the apartment, follow the room air temperature and humidity level (to 20 0And C respectively, at least 50 %), provides a constant flow of fresh air;
- Spend hardening procedures;
- Avoid hypothermia;
- Encourage the baby to play sports, lead an active life, and more often with a child outdoors.
Pediatrician Komorowski about the treatment of sinusitis: