Children's bodies are strongly influenced by a variety of infectious processes. for example, They are often picked up by rotavirus and enterovirus infection. For most parents, these diseases are something almost identical, but in reality it is not so. Enterovirus infection in children can be much more dangerous.
The disease of the International Classification of Diseases (MKB 10) It has B34.1 code, where the pathology observed as a viral infection, unspecified. The forums are many parents with study instructions and responses to drugs of enterovirus, but for the correct choice should see a doctor. The specialist will need to identify the causative agent of the EVF and explore the features of a particular situation.
By the development of the activities described by the disease leads picornavirus genus Enterovirus. The pathogen comprises single strand ribonucleic acid, which is inside the envelope protein. Pathogen comprises two antigen, one of which combines with all of come, and the other is specific only to that serotype.
Total lead to disease in humans are capable of about seventy strains of enteroviruses. They are divided into the following groups:
- ECHO viruses,
- unclassified enteroviruses.
Also released Coxsackie virus in children. It comes in two types - A and B. Origin includes 24 serotype, hazardous to the human body, and the second more 6. These pathogens can be found almost anywhere. The causative agent is able to survive in harsh conditions. Being in the environment, it remains viable for a month, and if you fall in the stool, it can live half a year.
The virus is easily transports low temperature, the impact of acid, ethyl alcohol, phenolic compounds and diethyl ether. But for him disastrous relatively high temperatures - more than fifty degrees. Also strains are killed by drying and disinfection, eg, with formaldehyde, potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide.
The activities of the virus in the body
Once in the human body, enterovirus affects, Firstly, lymphoid tissue. He hits them in the small intestine and throat ring. This occurs most often in the summer and autumn with children under ten years old. Thanks to a strong immunity older guys are able to easily transfer disease. If they follow the preventive and sanitary rules, it is usually the disease is an asymptomatic infection and do not bother the child.
Neonatal enterovirus hit too hard, because babies are breast-feeding. Mother's milk gives them all the necessary antibodies, but because they are protected from the disease. Later, the child can become infected by a sick person or the same virus carrier. often children, who have had enterovirus infection symptoms, More over five months after recovery remain carriers.
note. Sometimes the infection is transmitted from a sick child to the mother even during pregnancy.
The most common route of transmission of the pathogen - fecal-oral. Air drop occurs less frequently, however, it is also possible. Normally the pathogen enters the body of the child, if it does not comply with hygiene rules, drinking water or unboiled raw milk, Do not wash fruits or vegetables, or bathed in untested locations. The virus is transmitted along with toys and other things of sick people.
form of the disease
The incubation period may be from two to ten days. Initially pathogen faces nasopharynx and digestive tract. If a baby has a strong immunity, the disease can be limited by weak local inflammatory reactions or symptoms may not be at all. Otherwise pathology extends through the intestines, It enters the bloodstream and gradually comes to almost any organ.
The symptoms of enterovirus infection in children can be very diverse, because the disease takes many forms. All of them are divided into typical and atypical. Among the first to present:
- Эpidemicheskaya myalgia,
If the pathogen led to the development of atypical forms of the disease, then pancreatitis may start a child, gastroenteritis, nephritis, epidimitit and other diseases of the genitourinary system. Found enterovirus fever, uveitis, myocarditis and catarrhal form of infection. In newborns is encephalomyocarditis.
In children, symptoms of enteroviral infections may have similar symptoms. These include a strong rise in temperature, poor appetite, headache, weakness and chills. Some observed increase in submandibular and cervical lymph nodes, vomiting and nausea. These symptoms are added to standard and other, depending on the form of the disease.
Herpangina sometimes develops due to Coxsackie infections. Typical manifestations are considered:
- Eruptions on the sky, tonsils and palatal handles,
- red papules, gradually turning into vesicles,
- Pain at palpation of lymph nodes.
The rash of enterovirus infection in children is usually fine in the throat, about two millimeters, and all the vesicles, usually, no more than eighteen pieces. Usually, they opened their own on the second day of illness. At that time, small wounds are formed, but then they completely pass.
If the pathogen has led to the appearance of serous meningitis, signs of enterovirus infection in children are the following:
- Apathy or anxiety,
- Strong headache,
Serous meningitis is considered one of the most dangerous forms of infection, since during disease inflamed meninges. This leads to a stiff neck, Symptoms Brudzinskogo and kerning and other manifestations. Usually the disease begins to take place after five days, but some residual symptoms persist for three months.
Another dangerous form of enterovirus infection - poliomyelitis. When its development occurs defeat the gray matter of the spinal cord, due to which the state of the central nervous system is disrupted. In particularly serious cases, complications arise in the form of paresis or paralysis. The latter normally occurs when current malosimptomno.
There are different forms of poliomyelitis, but more 80% of cases occur in visceral form or abortifacient. In such an embodiment, the patient suffers from:
- catarrhal symptoms,
- Pain in the head and abdomen,
- symptoms of intoxication,
More often than not, this form takes place after a week of treatment and do not affect the neurological functions of the body. How many days will remain the symptoms, largely depends on the immunity of the child. It is considered the most severe form of paralysis, in which the second wave of pain in the limbs, confusion, hypersensitivity and convulsions. Paresis and paralysis arise even on the sixth day course.
In health care, there are specific clinical recommendations, that is, the protocol of treatment of children, cases of polio. Diagnose the disease on a photo or to cure it at home is not possible, so the parents if there are signs you need to take as a child to the clinic as soon as possible, in order to avoid negative consequences.
For suspected infectious process baby withdrawn pediatrician. It may redirect the child to a neurologist, cardiologist or other doctor, depending on the form of the disease. To clarify the diagnosis used:
- Linked immunosorbent assay,
- Blood test,
exciter search is performed by sampling of biological material in the zone, where failure is observed. Sometimes take discharge from the eyes or nose and throat, intestinal manifestations investigate faeces, or fence made of scrapings from the skin. In some cases it is necessary to differentiate the pathology of other diseases with similar symptoms.
It is important to identify the causative agent of herpes angina. It can develop due to the activity of Candida fungi, and in this case the drugs are not effective against viruses. If the doctor suspects a serous meningitis, he must make sure, it's not tuberculosis or, eg, meningococcal infection.
Treat enterovirus infection in the home only in mild currents. If a baby has a high temperature there, you can not bring down the tablets, it will have to be hospitalized. At the moment, therapeutic agents, acting directly on the pathogen, does not exist, therefore, treatment is symptomatic. Since the body infected with a virus, rather than a bacterium, Antibiotics are not used.
note. After enterovirus infection baby gets immunity for life, but only to a single strain, which fell into the body.
Therapy in this disease usually involves medication, aimed at strengthening the immune system. This can be an interferon, immunoglobulins or immunomodulatory agents. Depending on your symptoms, children are given ibuprofen, paracetamol, aqueous salt solutions, antiemetics and antihistamines. Sometimes you need to gargle or restore the intestinal microflora.
Nutrition and prevention
To cope with the disease faster, used diet for enterovirus infection in children. Firstly, it includes a sufficient amount of fluid, rejection of fat, roasted, smoked, Savory. We do not eat fruits and vegetables fresh, as well as food, increases peristalsis.
Usually, children are given buckwheat or rice porridge, baked apples and pears, compote and other warm liquid. Permissible vegetable soups and white bread. When the state of the gastrointestinal tract will be adjusted, can be added to meat dishes on the menu, steamed. Therapeutic diet allows consumption galetnogo cookies and green tea without sugar.
There are special reminders for parents, which examines the prevention of enterovirus infection in children. It includes tips like washing hands, fruits and vegetables, bottled water consumption and compliance with other rules of personal hygiene. You can put a vaccination, but it only protects against the virus Coxsackie or ECHO. This will reduce the, but does not remove the risk of infection.
The opinion of Dr. Komarovsky: