anthrax - disease, Over the years, it has won many titles. anthrax, carbuncle malignant, sacred or Persian fire - just a small list of options. Anthrax in humans - this is an extremely dangerous infection, which treatment should begin as soon as possible.
In the matter of this pathology studies have proved effective Russian doctors. for example, Stepan S. Andrew's learned tissues, affected at that time unknown disease. He gave the name of the disease, and later in person infected by it themselves. The vaccine against the disease has been established by a veterinarian by the name of Ivan Lange.
This treatment has allowed almost no time to get rid of the world one of the most dangerous diseases. Now anthrax usually infected only those, who works with her samples in the laboratory. If untreated, the death occurs only about 20% cases, but it refers to the spread of the disease type.
The causative agent of anthrax called Bacillus anthracis. This is a fairly large encapsulated bacteria in the form of sticks, which is a facultative anaerobic and gram-positive.
It refers to a rather tenacious, because:
- In contact with oxygen produces spores.
- In the form of spores able to live a few years in the water and in the ground for decades.
- When injected into the soil can germinate and create a new controversy.
- Survival during the short-lived high temperatures, eg, after several minutes of boiling.
- The nature of heating also affects the time, after which the organism is killed. If this fluid vapor, it is sufficient to roughly fifteen minutes.
- If the temperature reached 110 degrees, it takes less than ten minutes.
- Dry heat has to work on anthrax spores are not less than three hours, Only then they will die.
- disinfectants, like a combination of formalin and sodium, cope with the task in two hours.
- If anthrax is in some other form, it is much less resistant to a variety of influences.
Anthrax bacterium characterized by its ability to create three-exotoxin, which in many respects and causes of death. In this case, it is very unstable and is destroyed even at sixty degrees.
The outbreak of anthrax usually occurs due to soil, which becomes the focus of infection. There are two types: primary and secondary. The first option is associated with a direct hit infection. for example, if the animal was buried, died from anthrax. The second option involves transferring the pathogen, eg, rain or snowmelt.
The causes of disease
Infection anthrax is directly related to the life cycle of pathogenic bacteria. It begins with the spore form, at this time the organisms are in the soil.
Further extension is as follows:
- Spores into the coat of the animal, although it is also possible to penetrate into the respiratory tract or gastrointestinal system.
- Depending on, where the microorganism was, on the site of the pathological process starts strong.
- In animals, the disease progresses to a generalized form.
- Subsequently the disease anthrax is transmitted, if a person is in contact with sick animals, eg, while caring, or ate contaminated meat.
The life cycle of bacteria caused by subsequent release of the dead animal into the soil, when buried. With the provision of favorable environmental impact, spores can remain there for centuries. This requires a specific pH Factor, about fifteen degrees temperature and the organic composition of the soil.
anthrax transfer occurs in three basic ways:
- Airborne dust,
Most often infection occurs by means of the first type. This includes direct contact with sick animals in the care of him, or by touching an infected corpse. Using skins with the once a patient's body can also cause onset of infection.
In this case, the pathogens enter the body through a tiny skin lesions. In this case, and it is developing the most common variant - cutaneous, which sufficiently low mortality. Airborne dust is tied to bacteria transfer through the air, as well as if she was on some object.
note. Getting inside with breathing, pathogens cause the most dangerous, pulmonary type, Mortality in which, in the absence of treatment, is 95%. The indicator is strongly influenced strain of anthrax.
Food remains the way. This includes the transfer of the pathogen with meat, which has not undergone sufficient thermal treatment. Thus, the bacteria enter the gut, start becoming intestinal anthrax. In this case the mortality rate of approximately 80%.
Symptoms of cutaneous anthrax type
Symptoms usually begin to appear after about a week after infection, but there are other options. In some cases, the incubation period ends in a couple of hours, while others delayed for two weeks. The most common Bacillus anthracis gets on the skin, and because of certain symptoms this type of disease called karbunkuleznym.
For this case is characterized by the following symptoms:
- At the site of a skin, where there has been the introduction of the pathogen, develops carbuncle.
- Bacteremia - a severe inflammation of the hair follicle, as a result of which formed an extensive necrosis. Subsequently formed therefrom ulcer, capable to reach muscle tissue.
- Typically first bacteremia appears as a red spot, does not cause pain. Gradually, the color darkens, there is swelling, turns into a papule. At this point begins itching and burning.
- After these symptoms of anthrax, carbuncle starts to gather in serous fluid, who later revealed, forming an ulcer. Typically, new vesicles are formed next to it.
- For a week or two at the bottom of the ulcer appears necrotic scab black, resulting in damage to remind Gorelov skin.
- This is accompanied by painful sensations. Usually, Body is only one full carbuncle. In rare cases, they can be much more, which indicates very serious course of the disease.
- From the first days of carbuncles development is accompanied by other manifestations of the disease. Most often they are associated with intoxication.
- Symptoms include headache, prostration, possible discomfort in muscles, abdomen and lower back.
- Usually a fever, which disappears by the end of the first week of illness.
- If successful, the scabs drop off during the three weeks, leaving a significant scar.
Serious concern among doctors cause cases of carbuncle on the face, neck or mucosal, that you can look at photos of anthrax. Sometimes it appears like, eg, in the mouth or nose, because of which increases the risk of complications - sepsis.
The symptoms of other forms of
If the transmission path associated with anthrax air or food, is developing the so-called generalized forms. Symptoms of pulmonary type are similar to the flu, but the reason lies in the intoxication. Among them:
- Breathing problems,
This type differs rapid current. Just a couple of days (and sometimes a few hours) intoxication leads to huge temperature, up to forty degrees, while there is a fever. Symptoms also include pain in the chest, allocation of bloody sputum, a gradual increase of oliguria. In the last step, without treatment, the patient anthrax could not live longer 12 hours. The process is accompanied by heart failure and a high probability of pulmonary edema.
If diagnostics showed intestinal form, it is possible to very severe course with the following symptoms:
- The disease begins with anthrax intoxication and fever.
- burning sensation, sore throat.
- After a day begins severe abdominal pain and a variety of other gastrointestinal symptoms,, such as nausea and diarrhea.
- The stool can detect blood.
- Gradually enhanced cardiac decompensation, changed the complexion and sclera.
- There are a variety of cutaneous manifestations.
- From the point of view of psychology, patients experience fear.
Sometimes also produce septic type of illness, but it is a kind of a complication of other options. As the name implies, when such diagnosis is present sepsis, because of what the intoxication occurs especially hard and fast. Sometimes this leads to an infectious-toxic shock.
Treatment and prevention
Treat the disease usually comes with penicillin, which inject into the muscle tissue during the week. Sometimes this applies tablets doxycycline or levofloxacin, and in especially serious situations, physicians are turning to injections of ciprofloxacin. Also there is an expected impact, such as aseptic dressings carbuncles.
Most people are interested in vaccination, including the vaccine against anthrax animals ulcers. This tool is used planning. Scott put injections at the age of month, and then six months. Subsequently adults vaccinated animals vaccinated annually, and immediately, in the case of sick animals.
human immunization is carried out at a healthy state and the absence of contraindications, like systemic diseases of connective tissue. In the grafting may be local and general reactions, such as tissue edema and infiltration discharge. Instructions always clearly indicates, public vaccination doses to be used.