How does scarlet fever in adults? The symptoms and treatment of diseases

How does scarlet fever in adults? The symptoms and treatment of diseases

Contrary to the opinion, that this childhood illness, scarlet fever in adults and is, if their immune system is weakened and can not resist pathogens. This happens in 15-20 % cases of infection with the disease. In adults, symptoms often are not expressed and differ erased character, It is shown only a slight sore throat, intoxication and pale, transient rashes. But there is also more acute for scarlet fever in adults, when treatment was untimely or wrong, by reason of, that it was diagnosed late or incorrect. That is why it is important to know the main causes and symptoms of this disease, in time to identify it and to pass adequate therapy to avoid serious complications and consequences.

Воспаление горла при скарлатине
Sore throat in scarlet fever

How do you get scarlet fever

Basically scarlet fever occurs in children of preschool and younger. Previously it was considered serious childhood disorders, if it does not heal, then there may be serious consequences, affecting the vital human organs, such as the heart and kidneys. Luckily, She rarely appears in our time, this is due to the use of antibiotics against streptococcal infections.

Ill with scarlet fever can, infected by airborne droplets and through body contact. When sneezing and coughing human patient pathogens into the air in the saliva and the spray are deposited on the various surfaces and objects,, through which other people can become infected later. Also ill person touches with his hands nose and mouth, and then the door handles and other common objects, which then remain bacteria. Besides, at the touch of human skin, using a bath, towels, clothing or bedding with a sick with scarlet fever, It is also a high risk of contracting this disease. Successful treatment of the disease possible, if the time to detect it, which is very complicated its weakest manifestation in adults.

Important! Person, which had scarlet fever, can be carriers of the infection within a few weeks of recovery, and the disappearance of all disease symptoms. Someone may even survive the disease and its carrier to be even with no obvious signs of, usually people, susceptible to toxins, which are formed as a result of ability to live Streptococcus.

Much less likely to become infected with scarlet fever can be through contaminated food, especially raw milk.

Ways of infection

As mentioned, adults suffer from this disorder are rarely. To catch it must be two conditions:

  1. If a person has no specific antitoxic immunity, he never came across a group A streptococcal, when the first encounter infection can occur with them. When pathogens enter the body, It begins its activity, which leads to intoxication.
  2. If weakened general immunity. When children are sick, the explanation is, their immune system is not yet formed and can resist pathogens. Adults are less likely to get sick, because their immune system has been formed and is working at full capacity. But with severely immunocompromised, eg, after a serious illness or stress, possible infection of childhood disease.
Заражение скарлатиной чаще всего происходит тогда, когда иммунитет человека ослаблен
Infection with scarlet fever often occurs, when a person's immune system is weakened

forms of the disease

There are the following forms of scarlet fever, which occur most often in adults:

  • pharyngeal - when microorganisms penetrated through the mucosa of the oropharynx;
  • ekstrafaringealnaya - when the infection occurs through the damaged skin surface in a wound.

Both varieties of scarlet fever are found atypical and typical character. For a typical characteristic is the current in the light, moderate and severe. Heavy, in turn, is divided into septic, toksicheskuyu or toxico-septicheskuyu. Atipichnaya skarlatinы characteristic shape how stertыm (subclinical), and a rudimentary course.

scarlet fever, the danger is, that in the adult population, this pathology is mostly toxic-septic or obliterated. This indicates, that the symptoms are very vague, so they can not long ignore, and they can be confused with symptoms of other diseases. Disease in toxic-septic form is rare, especially in children, but among the most serious. Its symptoms not only affect the skin and mucous, but also the cardiovascular system. It is the most dangerous potential complications of endocarditis, myocarditis, pneumonia, sinusitis, arthritis, otitis, pyelonephritis and other.

symptoms

The first symptoms of scarlet fever may be several factors moderately expressed in the form:

  • inflammation in the throat;
  • transient rashes on the body;
  • increased body temperature;
  • slight intoxication.

More obvious signs of scarlet fever in adults appear after, how was the incubation period, component 3-7 days. But clear signs of pathology manifested even after days after infection, and over time they become stronger and become more pronounced.

При скарлатине у человека повышается температура тела
Scarlet fever in humans increased body temperature

By accompanying symptoms include:

  • symptoms, occur in cases of poisoning, ie. the presence of heat, chill, slackness, loss of appetite, headache, etc.;
  • the appearance of increased heart rate, which in the most severe cases, accompanied by nausea and vomiting;
  • the occurrence of redness on the face;
  • language becomes bright crimson;
  • It is a white triangle in the nasolabial part of the face, that does not have a rash and redness.

Scarlet fever is a disease of an infectious nature, which is accompanied by a rash on the:

  • neck;
  • face;
  • sides;
  • breast;
  • the folds of the arms and legs.
Скарлатина - это в первую очередь инфекционное заболевание, что выражается сыпью на теле
Scarlet fever - this is primarily an infectious disease, which is manifested rash on the body

These rashes are accompanied by severe itching and resemble a manifestation of allergy. Scarlet fever can distinguish, if push palm on the site of inflammation and redness that will disappear at a time. The rash disappears in a week, without leaving traces and pigmentation.

Since the disease symptoms in mild form, start treatment of scarlet fever in adults is problematic enough time. In mild temperature can be absent, rash and signs of intoxication.

But over time, develop complications in the form of:

  • angina and the swelling of lymph nodes in the neck;
  • otitis;
  • acute rheumatic fever;
  • the beginning of the inflammatory process in the kidneys, what happens more rarely.

There is also a form of complications of scarlet fever, as a relapse, which may appear in a few weeks after the first signs of scarlet fever.

note! For today are no methods for diagnosis of early stages of the disease, it can not be detected, using tests and other medical techniques. Diagnose disease doctor can only, based on clinical signs. It is therefore important to know the symptoms of scarlet fever, so as soon as possible to identify it and to start therapy.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis is based on the patient's clinical indications, which are supplemented by laboratory tests. During the examination, the doctor is required to pay attention to what, whether the patient's symptoms of acute intoxication, such as catarrhal phenomena, exanthematous rashes, who are gathering in the natural skin folds, and pronounced white autographism, alternated peeling in the form of small scales on the body, and large - on the palms and soles.

Laboratory diagnosis is based on clinical and biochemical blood tests, urinalysis, Microbiological and serological retrospective studies to streptococci. studies are also conducted by instrumental methods with the help of ECG and echo - cardiography.

What diseases can be mistaken for scarlet fever

And when stationary, and outpatient doctors can mix with the presence of scarlet fever:

  • rubella;
  • food allergies;
  • peel;
  • infectious mononucleosis;
  • psevdotuberkuleza;
  • lacunar angina;
  • drug dermatitis;
  • toksikodermiey;
  • ORVI;
  • adenovirus infection;
  • meningitis.
При первых симптомах скарлатины необходимо обратиться к специалисту, который точно установит диагноз и назначит лечение
At the first sign of scarlet fever must consult a specialist, that accurate diagnosis and prescribe treatment

Currently, in our country are not always available and effective methods, with which you can make early diagnosis of scarlet fever, so doctors have to detect the disease only clinical manifestations and, Consequently, quite a lot of erroneous diagnoses is found due to which is assigned the incorrect treatment.

medication

Treatment of scarlet fever in adults with mild form may go home with penicillin for ten days, or alternative drugs cephalosporins and macrolides in compliance with bed rest at least a week. When angina caressed his throat infusions of anti-inflammatory herbs - calendula, chamomile, eucalyptus. If the patient is in the throat there is severe inflammation, it extends further physiotherapy. Well appointed reception antihistamines, Best of whom are third-generation pills - Tsetrin, Zyrtec and similar, antipyretics, Tablets from a sore throat, glucose injection, drugs, reinforcing the vessel walls. In parallel with the basic treatment is important and restorative therapy - herbal teas, the infusion of rose hips, reception vitamin complexes. In the course of the use of antibiotics to do intake of probiotics, eg, Hilak forte, Acipol, Bifidobakterin.

Besides, it is important to protect people from infectious healthy people, the more children, because for them, the disease is most dangerous. The patient must also be to change your diet and nutrition. In the treatment of the symptoms of scarlet fever in adults it is recommended to follow a light diet, diversify food fresh fruits and vegetables, eliminate fat, fried, smoked and other heavy and junk food, entrained within the digestive organs and interfere with their normal functioning. If scarlet fever symptoms occur in the form of nausea and vomiting, the patient should drink plenty of liquids, comprising pure water, broths, natural juices. Basically at the beginning of treatment and timely compliance with all the doctor's instructions forecasts with scarlet fever occurs in adults favorable.

Quite different is the case in the event of a severe form of the disease, in this case required hospitalization. Based on hospital data, conclusions can be drawn, that the difficult course of the disease occurs in low social status of patients: students from the hostel, soldiers, passing military service and people from disadvantaged families.

preventive measures

Prevention of scarlet fever in adults is most important from strengthening the immune system. To do this, it is important to eat right, diet supplement vitamin complexes. Being in the room is important to make periodic airing, as often as possible to do wet cleaning. It is also recommended to wear only fresh and clean clothes. And most importantly, eliminate any possible contact with a person, which is more scarlet fever and household items. If, however, it happened, the need to take sick leave and during the incubation period to be at home, avoiding contact with loved ones. It is important to have separate utensils and wash them separate sponge. One of the preventive measures is to wear a gauze bandage, covering not only the mouth, but the nose, since harmful bacteria penetrate primarily through the nasal cavity.

If in a mass epidemic among adults and children, it is important to avoid crowded places, wear a mask and wash their hands frequently with soap. Daily morning and evening is recommended to wash the nose with sea water. Under these rules the probability of contracting this disease is much reduced.

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