apple processing of spring - one of the important procedures, which will not only increase the quantity and quality of the crop, but also will save a tree, significantly increasing its life expectancy. gardening involves a range of activities. This includes pruning apple trees, top-dressing, transplant, applying to whitewash the trunks of trees and soil care. All the efforts may be in vain, if the gardener had not timely processing of apple trees spring from pests and diseases. For this purpose are special preparations and sprays.
The most common pests and diseases of apple trees
Spring awakening from hibernation, not only trees, but also individual pests, spores of fungal diseases and other pests. Under favorable conditions, they are intensively developed, multiply and restore lost power at the expense of the shoots and young leaves. Completely get rid of pesky garden parties fail, but it is possible to reduce their number to a minimum.
The use of protective equipment in the spring helps avoid the negative effects of chemicals on the ovary and fruit, because they do not exist on the tree. This significantly reduces the need for spraying apple trees in summer, when the risk of chemicals to preserve the harvest is greatly increased.
note! Funds for the protection of the garden you need to alternate, since the use of the same addictive, which reduces the efficacy of.
For common diseases of apple trees are:
- Muchnistaya dew. It is a fungal disease, parasites that cause muchnistorosyannye, carrying a serious threat to many plants. Pathogens are classified as Phycomycetes. Often, the disease affects the leaves. Powdery mildew can be detected in the early spring, when they begin to dissolve kidney, and during the formation of the first sheet. On inflorescences occur white patches, strong deformation occurs, thereby eliminating part of them. Plant growth may slow down or completely stop. This disease can reduce the level of productivity on 45-65%.
- scab. The causative agent is a fungus Venturia inaequalis. By the development of the disease and contributes to thickening rainy spring garden tree crowns. The fungus infects leaves, ovaries fruits and petioles. The first signs can be seen later 14-20 days after renal disclosure. On leaves of olive spots, they develop arguments. Then, defeat covers young twigs and fruits. They appear dark areas, spoils the pulp of apples.
- bacterial canker. rapid disease, leading to tree death. The causative agent - the fungus marsupial family Botriosferievyh. It can parasitize living and dead plant tissues. The disease is able to affect any part of the tree above ground. The most dangerous is the contamination of the cortex, where the fungus enters through wounds. A favorable temperature for its development - 23-30 ° C. For bacterial canker is characterized by black rot on the leaves and bark cracks.
- Aphid. It is considered one of the most dangerous pests. Their size does not exceed 4 mm. With the defeat of aphids on the leaves appear sticky liquid, then they are rolled. Near the tree, you can find a large number of ants. The first to suffer from aphids shoot tips.
- red mite. One of the most common species of ticks, which is populated not only on apple, but on the other fruit trees. Its dimensions - from 0,3 to 0,4 mm. Mites suck sap from leaves, populated in the lower part of the leaf, while on the upper part formed small brown spots. Gradually the leaves turn brown or gray shade, wither and fall away.
- Yablonevaya sucker. It represents a sucking insect family psyllites. Does not exceed 3 mm. With the defeat of the leaves die, fall buds, changing the shape and texture of the leaves, deformed fruits.
- weevil. Beetle weevil dark brown, whose length is not more than 5 mm. Damages the buds on apple trees. Females lay eggs in the buds. Some time later, the eggs appear weevil larvae, gnaw bud inside and cementing their excrement petals, which causes them to dry out.
- Plodozhorka. Butterfly with black wings, length - from 18 to 21 mm. Its caterpillars eat away the bark and seed spread from fruit to fruit. One caterpillar can damage from 3 to 5 apples. They fall prematurely and rot. The apple moth can destroy 90% harvest.
The main stages of processing trees
Before processing of apple trees from pests grower must apply to whitewash the trunks of trees in early spring. This measure significantly reduces the number of parasites and removes the wood from fungal spores, hibernating in the bark. To whitewash made use self-prepared mixture of paint or acrylic-based. To prepare means, must be connected 300 Corner g, 40 g paper glue and 2 liters of water and stir thoroughly until smooth.
Important! To process the trunks of young trees, experts recommend the use of chalk, so as lime can corrode cortex.
Whitewash not desirable to apply a thick layer on apple, as surplus funds may be harmful. Whitewash only in dry weather should be. Before the procedure is necessary to remove the old bark trunks with, Using an iron brush. Whitewash should be updated regularly, Then the fruit trees will stay healthy longer and to bring harvest.
Treatment consists of apple trees in the spring 3 steps:
- Spraying trees before bud break. This eliminates larvae and spores of fungal diseases and avoid further spread of the parasite to other trees. Necessary to spray apple trees at temperatures from + 4 ° C, in the beginning of March. Particular heed should be paid to the tree trunk and skeletal branches, Since they zymuyut individual pests. Besides, sprinkle the soil should be the apple base.
- Spraying in the last ten days of March to mid-April. During this period, the buds are put forward. The goal is to destroy the spray larvae and preservation shoots pests from remaining after the first stage of processing trees.
- Sprinkle with mid to end of May. During this period, after the winter wake mites and exhibit active. This treatment helps reduce the risk of infection of apple trees throughout the season and contribute to the development of trees resistance to various types of parasites.
Means for processing
All safety products for the treatment of apples are divided into 3 categories:
- biological. Active components are the bacteria, microorganisms and viruses, which kill pests. They act slowly, for 14 days. When spraying trees are commonly used in the end of May, when apple ottsvetut and will ovary.
- chemical. Different from the biological action of a fast and reliable. Such means may be addictive, therefore they should be alternated throughout the season. They are most effective in the fight against pests. When using chemicals should adhere precise dosages. Their decay lasts 20 days.
- Folk remedies. They contain biological and chemical components. The advantage is that, that they can be prepared at home. Such means safest, but not always effective.
The biological agents to protect the apple trees are:
- Aktofit. The preparation of a new generation. Designed to protect plants from aphids, lichen, tsvetoeda, plodozhorky, apple moth, mites and other pests. After contact with the insect completely suppresses his nervous system.
- bitoksibatsillin. It is active against lepidopteran pests and biting. It is not addictive in pests. It can be used at any stage of apple development. Getting inside the insect, the active ingredient is completely paralyzes the digestive system of the parasite, which leads to his death.
- Trihodermin. Increases the resistance of plants, often used for treatment of apple scab, powdery mildew and, cope with different types of fungal diseases. The drug improves the condition of the soil and increases the yield of trees. Which is part of the substance is safe for the human body. Trichoderma is suitable for all stages of the care of the apple tree.
- Pentafag-C. It has a therapeutic and prophylactic effect against many bacterial diseases. It reduces the loss of trees powdery mildew and scab. The preparation includes virions 5 bacterial strains of viruses and biologically active elements.
- Planriz. generic drug, that protects the trees from root rot, scab, mildew and other diseases. It consists of rhizosphere bacteria. Suitable for spraying on the phase of germination until harvesting.
- Lepidotsid. Insecticide intestinal action. Effectively fights against leaf-eating insects. Active ingredient are bacteria, which live in the soil. Getting into the stomach parasite, drug paralyzes the work of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in death. Widely used for treatment of apple moth.
Important! All biological drug begin to be active at air temperature of at least + 10 °C. Therefore, the first processing of trees is desirable to conduct chemical means.
Pretreatment trees made using the following chemicals:
- Mochevina or urea. Actively fighting scab, cherry leaf spot, aphids, sucker and lystovertkoy. Useful for treatment of a mixture of urea spring tree to add a small amount of copper sulfate to enhance the action of the drug. Prepare a solution of this recipe can be: take 60 g copper sulphate, 800 g of urea and 12 liters of water, mix thoroughly and used for other purposes.
- bluestone. Designed to combat scab, bacterial canker and fillostiktozom. For spraying apple trees with copper sulfate should be connected 120 g raw 12 liters of water. Besides, bluestone part of the Bordeaux mixture, which increases the effectiveness against fungal diseases. Handle Garden copper-containing agents can only 1 once a year.
- inkstone. It prevents the appearance of chlorosis, It protects trees against fungal diseases and pests of defeat. To prepare the solution sufficiently 500 g raw 10 liters of water.
- score. Fungitsidnoe means, designed to combat botrytis, scab and powdery mildew. The action starts later 2 hours after spraying. This drug is addictive, so it should be alternated with other products. For processing trees dilute 4 Forthcoming ml 10 liters of water. Spraying should take place at temperatures from +14 to + 25 ° C.
- Bi-58. It is an insecticide, effective against leaf, mites, caterpillars, sucker and aphids. To prepare the solution needed 10 ml drug and 10 ml of water. It is strictly forbidden to use the B-58 at the time of flowering, as a means detrimental to bees.
- Karʙofos. Insektoakaricidnoe means, designed to combat the mite, tracks, blossom beetle and moth. It dissolves readily in water and forms an emulsion. At low temperatures means thickens, while its toxicity is saved.
note! In the treatment of trees chemicals should use gloves, wear a dust mask and work clothes with long sleeves.
Effective folk remedy for the protection of apple aphids and other pests is a garlic tincture:
- grind 500 g garlic.
- pour 5 liters of water.
- leave on 2 o'clock.
- Strain through cheesecloth
Dilute the mixture was 10 liter of water and spray the trees.
Well in pest control in the garden of soda ash solution:
- mix 70 g soda in 200 g soda.
- Add 25 ml liquid soap.
- pour 10 liters of water.
It is useful for the treatment of plants to use the infusion of camomile on the basis of:
- join 700 g dry raw 3 l of boiling water.
- Insist 10 hours.
- Add 60 g soap.
- Bring total volume to 10 l.
Apple scab to protect from possible infusion of horsetail. It suffices to fill the plant with water in proportions 1:3 and insist 3 day. For this purpose, also allowed to use mustard solution. To do this, connect 100 g of mustard powder 10 liters of water. Per season is allowed to spend no more 4 sprinkles.
Effectively fights with caterpillars and aphids infusion ash:
- take 100 Mr. ash.
- pour 10 liters of water.
- Add 20 g urea.
Ash is considered complex fertilizer, because not only it has a direct effect on pests, but also increases the osmotic pressure of apple juice, which significantly complicates the power of sucking parasites.
After flowering to control apple blossom beetle and moth it is recommended to use a decoction of wormwood:
- Grind freshly harvested or dried plants.
- take 350 g feed and pour 10 liters of water.
- A day later, place a container on fire, bring to the boil and cook 30 minutes.
- strain broth.
- Add 50 g grated soap.
Apply a means for spraying and repeat manipulation week apart.
Protect the trees from the moth and the sucker can be infusion of onion:
- take 250 g onion skin.
- Add 10 l of warm water.
- Insist 5 days.
Use for the treatment of apple trees at intervals 5 days. The maximum number of sprays - 3.
To avoid infection by pests of apple trees in the spring, such recommendations should be followed:
- Spraying any drugs at a distance 60 see the tree, to sprinkle evenly held.
- Before use, the solution should be thoroughly mixed, to a plant not fall into the high concentration of the substance and do not cause severe burns.
- Processing should be carried out simultaneously in all the garden, rather than individually trees.
- Before using chemicals should check their effect on the same branch. If the test does not have any negative consequences, it is possible to carry out the procedure with all the tree.
- Folk remedies have a short period, so after the first rain is necessary to repeat the process.