Scarlet fever in children - an acute infectious disease of character, manifested in children punctate appearance of the rash, increase in temperature, the phenomena of intoxication and angina. The incubation period lasts, as with many of these infectious diseases, from 2 to 7 day. But in some cases the duration of the incubation period may be reduced to 1 days or stretch to 10 day. The causative agent of this disease is well-known bacterial organism - Streptococcus group A. Infection occurs by airborne transmission path from patients: during intercourse, when you sneeze, and contact-household by using common household items (bed linen, toys, cutlery). The greatest danger are diseased at the initial stage of the disease.
Signs of scarlet fever in children begin to show up unexpectedly on the background of overall health and develop gradually, debuting formation inflammatory response in pathogen penetration into the organism (throat). Until that moment, as the child's body began to appear rash, disease clinic may resemble tonsillitis or angina, since the child at an early stage of a sore throat. But the further development of the disease already gives reason to suspect, that the child was ill with scarlet fever.
In adults, the disease, usually, develops obliterated, causing slight intoxication, mild sore throat and rash undistinguished, appearing for a short time.
symptoms of scarlet fever
How does the disease:
- There are pain in the throat;
- after they have - a rapid increase in body temperature to very high;
- increased, dense and painful submandibular lymph nodes;
- the child is naughty, it becomes sluggish, he loses appetite;
- kid complains of muscle aches and headache;
- Sometimes the child begins sudden pain in the hearts of the projection;
- pretty quickly appear melkotochechnye characteristic rash of red saturated color. Rash occurs after approximately 12-24 hours after the fever and looks so characteristic, that allows you to put the children diagnosed with "scarlet fever" almost certainly (naturally, when lack of experience at the doctor).
The initial stage of the disease characterized by the development of inflammation, accompanied by hyperemia throat and significant swelling in the tonsils on both sides, as well as the formation of petechial hemorrhages, propagating across the upper surface Sky. Only for 12 hours, the child develops purulent bilateral lacunar tonsillitis, in some cases, quickly turning into a phase of necrotic changes with a large number of purulent discharge. Language sick child overlaid with dense easily removes plaque whitish.
In the picture below you can see clearly, It looks like angina of scarlet fever in children, while the child is greatly increased temperature and increased regional lymph nodes.
Through 48 hours after the onset of symptoms described by the color of papillae language becomes saturated crimson tones, which is a significant feature in the diagnosis of "scarlet".
In the first two days, the disease manifests itself including the specific nature of the eruptions, spread over a large part in the following areas:
- bend of elbow;
- inner thighs;
- along the linea alba;
- on either side of the chest;
- in the groin.
Palpable roughness can be determined integuments, appearing due to inflammation of the papillae of the skin epidermis. When you try to stretch the skin rash becomes invisible, arising again in 10 — 20 sec.
note! Another characteristic feature of scarlet fever is a waxy pallor of skin in the nasolabial triangle. Eruptions in this area there are no.
Rashes on the skin persist for four to five days, then they gradually fade and disappear. In some cases, the skin is still some time continued to be shelled, the patient complains of itching and scratching. disease peak falls on the third day, after which the symptoms are on the decline: normal temperature, reduced morbidity of lymph nodes, rash gradually disappears.
Scarlet fever in children is diagnosed primarily on the basis of the inspection data in accordance with the typical symptoms of the disease. If the doctor is faced with an atypical case of the disease, the patient is prescribed serology mucus, taken from the oropharynx.
Important! When scarlet fever disease in the patient should be taken on a throat swab for analysis, to avoid joining diphtheria bacilli. First of all surveyed children under the age of five.
The results of a clinical blood test mark increase ESR and moderate leucocytosis, in some cases there is a shift to the left of the formula neutrophilic, due to the fact, that the body is formed by so-called allergic alertness.
Differential diagnosis includes rubella, sudamen and measles.
- For lack of prickly heat characteristic temperature syndrome, as well as open or suppurating elements skin rashes.
- When rubella increase and become painful cervical lymph nodes.
- For measles hallmarks will act expressed sinusitis since the manifestation of infection and severe cough with phlegm.
The complicated scarlet fever in children
Scarlet fever is most often gives complication on the main body of the cardiovascular system, according to this in the period of convalescence is recommended to make an electrocardiogram, reveals the occurrence of valvular abnormalities at an early stage of development. Besides, ECG helps to prevent the development of rheumatic myocarditis.
antibiotics, appointed in a timely manner, help to prevent the development of complications in children, ill with scarlet fever.
In the short term, as well as complications may develop purulent inflammation, such, as: sinusitis - etmoidita, frontal sinusitis and other; otitis media. Bronchitis and pneumonia are more rare complications. Most often the patient has purulent tonsillitis with the formation of retropharyngeal abscess. Myocarditis is diagnosed in approximately 5 % sick children. The development of rheumatoid arthritis may take two to three months.
Long-term effects of the disease, namely the formation of pathological immune and allergic status can be revealed months later, and sometimes years. Secreted toxin pathogen causes deformation of the human genome at the site, is responsible for allergic and immune response to the foreign protein. Allergies can occur in response to any trigger, which operates most of the body of the child. Other manifestations of autoimmune reactions can hide behind the destructive changes in tissue - cartilage and connective, chronic thyroiditis and pancreatitis. Much rarer conditions such, as toxic hepatitis and glomerulonephritis.
Important! Treatment of scarlet fever in children is conducted under conditions of strict bed rest for a period of minimum 7 days.
Doctors strongly recommend drinking in the day before 3 liters of fluid, because excessive drinking is an essential condition for the maintenance of the internal organs of the sick child. Appointed by antihistamines - suprastin, diazolin, pipolfen or other. It is recommended the use of vitamins - A, E, WITH. Ascorutinum and calcium gluconate are assigned to strengthen the vascular wall.
note! Start to treat scarlet fever with antibiotics is necessary as soon as possible, as will be revealed typical symptoms. This tactic helps prevent the development of serious complications, which could lead to dire consequences for the child's organism.
Most often, doctors prefer broad-spectrum antibiotics - amoxicillin, erythromycin, tsifranom etc.. To enhance the effect of these drugs are combined with Biseptol, metronidazole or other antimicrobial agents. The dosages and formulations determined by the attending physician depending on age, the child's weight and other indicators, necessary to consider the appointment of drug therapy.
For the purpose of prophylaxis of myocarditis, rheumatism and diseases of the connective apparatus appointed nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Sometimes the doctor prefers ordinary aspirin, which among other things helps to relieve pain and lower temperature.
In place of the entrance gate of infection used rinse - normal soda solution or furatsilina, effective in this case, and a decoction of chamomile. As the powder on the area of the upper palate and tonsils apply powder "streptocid", characterized by high efficiency. Not less effective treatment and "Lugol" solution.
Baby's skin during lesions treated with a solution "Brilliant Green", Baby powder, antihistamine ointment applied to various, ie local therapy is mainly aimed at the removal of itching and preventing secondary infections in connection scratching.
How to avoid
On the prevention of complications in the affected child has been described above. But how to prevent the disease itself?
Prevention includes scarlet fever in children:
- emergency, From the first days of illness, isolation of sick child;
- inclusion of "quarantine" mode, the child care center, in which great attention is paid to the children of, which had been in contact with the patient;
- if any of the children revealed any signs of disease, it is isolated until diagnosis / to recover.
Home a sick child need to allocate a separate ventilated room, where morning and evening, must be carried out wet cleaning using a des-funds. If possible, conduct kvartsevanie sick child's room three times a day. The baby is necessary to allocate a separate bowl and hygiene, that after the use of soaked 30 minutes in disinfecting solution, then thoroughly washed with water.
Inoculation of scarlet fever is not provided as a measure of prevention of this disease. Usually, those people, who have already suffered from scarlet fever, do not develop it again.
In some cases, the doctor performs emergency prevention using gammoglobulinov. This measure is mainly applied in relation to children with poor health, contact with a sick child to scarlet fever inception they have symptoms.
disease prevention measures scarlet fever in children is mainly focused on compliance with sanitary-epidemiological regime, set for kindergartens.
at the base of the active prevention of scarlet fever incidence is following the rules of personal hygiene. Besides, do not need to ignore the constant strengthening of the immune system - in fact, he is the guardian of the body and protects the child against serious infections. The use of prescribed vitamin complexes and tempering, as well as adherence to diet and control the zinc content of the food consumed - will ensure the health of the baby and its high resistance to childhood infections.
At the end of the publication, let's look, what he thought of scarlet fever in children known pediatrician - Dr. Komarovsky.