Rubella (lat. Rubella), or as it is called, "Third disease" or German measles in adults, as known, uncommon. But if you or someone close to you all the same she got sick, you should know, that rubella occurs in adults, usually, in severe, sometimes even with the development of serious complications. The source of infection in this disease is an infectious virus Rubivirus kind man. He begins to excrete the virus at the end of the incubation period, and continues to be contagious in the early days of symptoms of skin rash.
Transmission of the virus, which refers to a highly contagious (highly contagious) It takes place by droplets. For this reason, the patient should be compulsorily isolated, it is assigned bed rest. If the patient does not develop complications, the doctor may assign patient treatment.
Symptoms of measles in adults
Generally, Rubella symptoms and treatment of adults and children are quite similar, the only difference is, that little patients rubella is mild, and its symptoms are less pronounced. In adults, are all symptoms of the disease will manifest with greater intensity.
note! In adults, there is also mild forms. In such cases, recovery takes place within two to three weeks provided destination symptomatic therapy and patient compliance bedrest. Is mild disease often seems completely harmless to the patient. However, this is not true, and, to avoid the development of complications, require constant monitoring by the physician how during illness, and during convalescence.
How does rubella:
- The incubation period is about 15-25 days. One of the earliest signs, which can manifest disease, is an increase in peripheral lymph nodes (especially occipital and zadnesheynyh), also affected the axillary, inguinal lymph nodes and other groups and their. this symptom, manifested in the patient at the end of the incubation period, immediately precedes the appearance of the rash of rubella. Increase in peripheral lymph node size is considered to be pathognomonic symptom of rubella.
- After that, rubella begins to "pour". rash elements are localized mainly on the back, on the skin of the flexor surface of the peripheral joints and on the buttocks. Rash, Rubella occurs when adults, It does not differ from that of children, but more intensely expressed. She looks, how melkotochechnye pink elements maculopapular nature, prone to merger (to clearly understand, It looks like measles, cm. pictured below).
- The patient gradually increases intoxication syndrome: Body temperature rises to figures 38,5-39,0 WITH, general weakness, malaise, drowsiness.
note! When rubella in children, Unlike older patients, temperature, usually, It does not rise more, than to the level of 37,5 WITH, but in adults this point should be kept under control, It can be expressed hyperthermia, needs correction!
- Migraine headaches. AT 90% rubella cases in adults, the disease is accompanied by very strong attacks of headache, which flows through the migraine type. These pains are difficult cupping and extremely painful for the patient. Therefore, it is not necessary to load the body plenty of painkillers - likely, they will still be ineffective.
- Muscle-joint pain. In addition to headache, the patient experiences a pronounced discomfort in the joints and muscles. The sensations are similar to those, that occur with severe flu. Pain syndrome in this case is not related to high temperature.
- enanthema, appearing on the mucous membrane of the mouth - on the soft palate and the cheeks. Unlike measles, in this case we do not see spots Belsky, Filatov-Koplik, and it allows us to differentiate the diagnosis.
- lacrimation, accompanied by photophobia. Two of these symptoms are very common with the development of rubella in adults. Often a person is experiencing discomfort, even daylight, passing through the window. The electric lighting causes painful sensations. Therefore, the room is recommended to draw the curtains and use, if necessary, sources of local lighting dim, eg, table lamp, sconces or nightlight.
- Conjunctivitis. Approximately half of the cases of photophobia in patients accompanied by acute conjunctivitis. It develops on 3-4 day of illness, often at night, and in the morning the patient can not open his eyes because of the drying of purulent crusts, accumulated per night.
- Often, men with rubella occur pain in the testicles. This harmless symptom disappears immediately after recovery, and to reduce the intensity of pain is possible by means of bed rest.
- Pharyngitis and rhinitis, cold, sore throat, coughing - these symptoms also accompany the disease, which could be mistaken for seasonal flu, if not typical rash.
- Changes in the composition of blood. The results of a clinical blood test are observed: raising the level of plasma cells to 10-30%, leukopenia, lymphocytic and monocytic.
earlier, when the rubella vaccine has not been created, adult incidence of this disease people tried to zero, because people "have time" to move the disease in childhood, after which they formed lasting lifelong immunity. After that, the vaccine came into use physicians, decreased incidence in children, but, he grew up in adults, because the vaccine does not provide lifelong protection. It is therefore formed an opinion, it is better to allow the child to have had rubella as a child, as this will help to avoid the risk in the future and eliminate post-vaccination reactions and complications development.
Howbeit, to engage in self-diagnosis or self-treatment carried out, definitely, must not, because the disease is not as harmless, as it may seem, in some cases,. Therefore, when a first of its symptoms should call a doctor, and in any case not to delay the implementation of its recommendations. Otherwise, you risk to get severe complications.
Important! Even if you shift rubella mild and feel satisfactory - do not neglect to appeal for medical assistance! The disease can behave very treacherously!
Possible complications of rubella include:
- angina development;
- severe otitis;
- encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and encephalomyelitis.
Pregnancy with rubella
Not accidentally cause extreme anxiety symptoms of rubella, appeared in the patient during pregnancy. If the disease has begun to develop in the first trimester, the doctor will insist, The patient decided to have an abortion for medical reasons.
The fact, that the intrauterine infection, the fetus having serious complications, defies correction. If the woman was infected in late pregnancy, then it is introduced immunoglobulin and produced continuous monitoring of the state of her health, and fetal monitoring.
Important! With the defeat of the fetus may develop hearing organ defects, skeletal system, CNS and peripheral nervous system and other internal organs. Often it occurs and fetal death.
For these reasons, quite a weighty reason for, to be vaccinated against rubella adult, not recover from her childhood, is planning to become pregnant. The optimal solution would be the vaccination of both partners, who are going to become parents.
The diagnosis is made with the appropriate symptomatology, anamnestic data and on the basis of clinical blood analysis, as well as in laboratory confirmation of a patient's blood of antibodies to, indicates the occurrence of an acute process. A basic method for determining the presence in an organism of agent is rubella PCR reaction.
causal agents, directly aimed at the elimination of rubella pathogen, does not exist. In this way, therapeutic interventions are reduced to eliminate or reduce the intensity of symptoms. More often ill and do not need any special treatment, but, It is very important as far as possible to isolate the patient as much as possible and provide him with absolute calm. An important rule is to comply with bed and drinking regime, showing warm drinks from cranberries, cranberry juice, broth supplemented with rosehip lemon.
Of the drugs are shown:
- with painful itching applied fenistil (dimentinden).
- when picked up temperature 39 degrees are assigned antipyretic drugs - pills and suppositories Panadol, analginum dimedrolom intramuscularly and other.
note! Antiviral drugs (pills, ointment) - with rubella are not shown, because it does not give any effect.
How to treat rubella in adults with folk remedies? - For these purposes, one-component or multi-component teas gathering medicinal herbs, has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial (to prevent stratification of secondary infection), antihistamine and antipyretic properties.
decoction 1. two st. spoons of dry rose hips, One st. a spoonful of ground or chopped dandelion roots and the same amount of nettle leaves are mixed and poured 500 ml of boiling water, insist day, then filter and add a small amount of honey to taste. Steep herbs best in a thermos. Take infusion to three times a day before meals for two Article. spoons.
decoction 2. A mixture of leaves mother and stepmother, raspberry fruit, fruits cranberries and lime blossom - on 1 Article. fill spoon each component 500 ml of boiling water and 20 minutes insist. After this, the infusion is filtered and taken before bedtime for 1/2 glass in the form of heat.
decoction 3. Birch buds, dandelion root, milfoil, grass series, Artemisia flowers and clover are taken in equal proportions and are welded in the same, as in the previous case,. Take a decoction of 1/3 3-4 times a day.
decoction 4. 1 Article. spoon of leaves mother and stepmother is mixed with two of Article. tablespoons lime color and 1 Article. honey. The mixture is poured 500 ml of boiling water and infused for 1 o'clock. The mixture was then heated to boiling to simmer, boil 5 min., cooled and filtered. Take means to be in the form of heat at bedtime 2 glass.
decoction 5. 1 Article. rosehip spoon and an equal amount of black currant fruit mixed and poured 400 ml of boiling water, then 45 minutes insist, filter and drink during the day instead of tea.
decoction 6. mixed 1 Article. a spoonful of rose hips and an equal number of lingonberry berries, pour mixture 400 ml of boiling water and insist 45 min. Take in a very warm as the tea throughout the day.
decoction 7. 1 Article. spoon berries cranberries, and an equal amount of St. John's wort grass ground, mixed and poured three cups of boiling water, and then left for 10 min. to simmer, and then for one hour and filtered insist. Taking the drug should be on 1/2 cup four times a day.
The main method of preventing rubella, proposed today by physicians, It is the vaccination of the population. Vaccination against rubella adults can be made at any district clinic.
A lot of help to reduce the incidence and measures, aimed at strengthening the immune system, such, as: healthy lifestyle, physical Culture, reception of vitamins and proper nutrition, adherence to sleep and rest, hardening.
Adults who seldom enough go to the doctor with a request for setting vaccinated against rubella. but, Vaccination is strongly recommended for women, who are planning a pregnancy, in fact completely exclude the possibility of contact with the viral agent is impossible.
When planning a pregnancy you need to know, Have you not been ill with rubella during childhood, what the doctor will prescribe a special analysis. If the disease has occurred, then there is no reason to worry.
Rubella vaccine contains live attenuated virus, which allows for the formation of antibodies in the vaccinated organism, without causing disease. From the moment of vaccination before pregnancy should be at least 2-3 months, to immunity could form fully.
Before the procedure, the doctor examines the patient's vaccination, and the patient, in turn, informs the doctor about all of them recently ported diseases, as well as the state of health at the moment and the presence of any chronic illnesses and other vaccinations. The vaccine against rubella is administered subcutaneously in the region of the scapula or shoulder.