ORZ - group of acute diseases of the respiratory character (hence the abbreviation), widespread mainly in the cold season. In summer, the number of cases of ARI is minimal. The symptoms of acute respiratory infections in adults depends on the pathogen, causative (read about it below). but, in general, signs of acute respiratory infections in adults have a similar picture.
The causes of acute respiratory diseases in adults
The most common cause of the disease - a viral infection of different human agents (SARS - a special case of acute respiratory infections), among which:
- The influenza virus
- Respiratory syncytial virus group.
Transmission occurs through droplets. If it's the flu virus - it is mainly and primarily will be amazed trachea, and if we are dealing with an adenovirus - the Throat. On acute respiratory infections and acute respiratory viral infections in adults, as the cause of its development, accounts, only 50-70% of all cases of acute respiratory diseases, Judging by the statistics.
note! When SARS bacterial infection without antibiotics component does not appointed!
In addition to viral agents cause of acute respiratory infections in adults may be a bacterial organisms:
In this case, as a cure for ARI will serve an antibacterial drug or a combination thereof. Which antibiotics to take in a particular case decided by the attending physician depending on the microorganism, by reason of whom developed this unpleasant condition, as well as other related factors.
Council! should not own "appoint" or children, or adults antibacterials, and without the participation of a physician to determine the number of administrations per day. Any tablet can not only be useless, but also can cause malfunction of the internal organs, and may also promote the development of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms when calculating incorrect dosage or incorrect reception mode and duration.
Ways of transmission and disease progression
ORZ, as I mentioned above, transmitted mainly by droplets from a sick person. After introduction into the body it occurs propagation of the infectious agent in the respiratory tract, at this point the virus particles already number in the thousands. To grip all the new sections of the respiratory system virions induce necrotic changes and desquamation of the bronchial mucosa. Prevalence and severity of the process depends on the state of the immune system of the diseased, as well as the properties of the particular pathogenic virus.
But ARI bacterial origin has a different pathogenesis. As such contamination, usually, not happening. Most often, when lowered immunity due to various reasons in the body are activated conditionally pathogenic microflora, constantly present in the human respiratory system.
by the way, the same is true in some cases of adenovirus infection, since adenovirus can also "accommodate" in the healthy body for a long period of time. In this embodiment, the incubation period of the disease ORZ, as such, missing.
When an adult acute respiratory symptoms are severe, hospitalization is not required, and treatment of acute respiratory infections in the home is a common practice. Recovery is relatively fast. but, the, How long is the treatment and how to treat acute respiratory infections in each case - determined by a physician. Patients are advised to drink plenty of fluids and bed rest.
note! Notably, that against this disease often occurs exacerbation of chronic diseases, especially respiratory diseases, leading to the connection of secondary bacterial component. And even in that case, if the original ARI was caused by a virus. In this case, fast cure ARI without antibacterial agent will not succeed, and the healing process itself can significantly delayed.
The incubation period of the disease is a few days, and in some cases can be reduced to a matter of hours. The first and the main sign of ARI - a fever, appearing on the first day of illness. Usually, it all starts with chills, the temperature rises to the level of 38-40 ° C and maintained at a high level, depending on the type of infectious agent. If a, eg, the causative agent of the disease was rhinovirus, Hyperthermia is kept relatively short time and does not reach very high numbers. The state of the patient with the flu can be much more severe.
Council! When the temperature raising with acute respiratory disease in adults above 39,5 ° C is recommended reception antipyretic. If there is no effect on them - you need to call an ambulance. When the temperature rises in a patient, suffering from chronic diseases, - especially diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as in pediatric patients, you should immediately call a doctor, without waiting, until the mercury reaches a critical level.
Following the fever patient develops a general intoxication, it can be expressed as headaches and joint pain, weakness, feeling an ache in muscles, lacrimation, pain and sometimes appear in the eyeballs and grow during their movements. Photophobia may also be included in the list of symptoms, characteristic ORZ. In severe the patient has insomnia, can develop delirium, including hallucinations.
Important! In severe the patient's condition should immediately call an ambulance!
Symptomatology of acute respiratory viral
- ARI rhinovirus origin accompanied by swelling of the mucous membrane of the nasal passages, sneezing and watery, and then mucopurulent nasal discharge. The patient complains of a sore throat, "Heavy head", hoarseness.
- Respiratory syncytial form as acute respiratory disease in adults accompanied by high fever, bronchopneumonia, cough with phlegm and shortness of breath. This form occurs relatively infrequently.
- Influenza is characterized by acute onset, fever, increasing intoxication symptoms, a sense of rawness in the chest, sore throat, dry cough, flushing of the skin in the neck and face. In this case, the patient reveal low blood pressure and slow heart rate. In some cases, there are bleeding from the nose.
when symptoms, typical flu, you need as quickly as possible to call an ambulance, since one can not exclude the development of such complications, as swelling lung and / or brain, and toxic shock.
Influenza is characterized by the development of such complications, like otitis, pneumonia and sinusitis, for the treatment which the doctor prescribes antibiotics.
- Parainfluenza similar in symptoms, properly, flu, but, all the symptoms in this case will be expressed much brighter, and the disease will take place in a more protracted form. Of the typical symptoms noted pain during swallowing, "Barking" cough dry rough and swelling in the area of vocal cords, causing pain due to their reflex spasm. Complications in the form of bronchopneumonia occur in patients already on the fourth day, therefore, treatment should be started as soon as possible.
- When adenoviral genesis OCR process are involved not only the respiratory organs, but the eyes, and lymph nodes. On the tonsils occurs characteristic whitish filamentous or film-coating, swollen eyelids, develop conjunctivitis, gastrointestinal disorders and rash in the form of large spots. complication, usually, is pneumonia.
- Enterovirus infection or, as it is sometimes called - summer flu, It begins with a fever and is accompanied by nausea, abdominal pain, limfadenopatieй, as well as hepato- and splenomegaly. When hematogenous dissemination of the virus, the patient has a skin rash, swollen limbs, and oral ulcers appear. If left untreated, the patient may develop encephalitis and meningitis.
Symptomatology ARI bacterial etiology
- when the disease, caused by chlamydia, the patient is dominated by intoxication and fever symptoms, developing tracheobronchitis, increase in the size of the spleen and liver. Pneumonia may develop on the second day of onset, so do not delay the treatment.
- When mycoplasmal lesions of the respiratory system of the patient, in addition to the effects of intoxication and fever will take place nasopharyngitis and tracheobronchitis. The physician then prescribes the patient antibiotics.
Most often, acute respiratory infections, caused by bacterial pathogens, occur in patients, with chronic diseases of the respiratory system. The phenomena of fever and symptoms of intoxication, usually, expressed in these cases mild, and the disease itself is not developing badly, and gradually. but, Cases of severe occurrence of these infections to severe complications - also, Unfortunately, are taking place.
Diagnosis and treatment
Acute respiratory infections in adults with non-severe it flows can be performed in the home, but, with the strict observance of bed and drinking regime during fever to prevent the development of complications.
If possible, the patient should be isolated from households, as it is a source of infection.
For purposes of treatment, be sure to call the doctor and strictly abide by its recommendations, which will not only depend on the etiology of the disease, but also on many other parameters, concerning the condition of the patient and his medical history.
If you decide not to go to the doctor, or you simply do not have such a possibility, then try to follow the tips mentioned below.
Treatment of folk remedies
- It has long been at the "common cold" diseases was made to drink tea sweated.
Classic sweated tea with raspberry prepared as follows: 5-6 tablespoons dried berries pour 3 cups boiling water, insist 20 minutes and one hour in a warm drink, but not hot. It should not be additionally burn the mucous membrane of a hot drink - it already irritated. The tea can be added 1 teaspoon of honey. Instead, you can use dried berries raspberry jam.
note! At the use of other vitamin popular beverage - tea with lemon - for the same reason should not exceed the concentration of lemon juice therein, so as citric acid, irritating the throat, can contribute to layer additional infections on the mucous.
Raspberry beverage diaphoretic effect achieved by salicylic acid, contained in the berries, and the effects of essential oils.
Besides, as a source of vitamin B raspberry be useful for long-term treatment with antibacterial drugs, reduces the production of vitamin intestinal bacteria.
- Lipa with snowball. The mixture is prepared from the calculation: linden flowers - 1 part, Viburnum berries - 1 part. 2 tablespoons pour two cups of boiling water, boil 10 minutes, cooled and filtered. Taken at night in the form of heat 1-2 glass.
- Rowan and wild rose. take 1 part of the hips, 1 of the fruits of mountain ash, pour the mixture with two cups of boiling water, during 10 minutes boil, insist 4 hours in a closed container and filter. Should take a decoction of 0,5 cup three times a day.
- Cranberry juice in the form of heat can take no limitation - it is hereby fount vitamins and enhances the protective properties of the organism. Drinking plenty of fluids is an important point on the road to recovery from acute respiratory infections.
- When bronhitopodobnyh phenomena is recommended to breathe broth, prepared as follows::
A handful of eucalyptus leaf poured boiling water and boiled 2 minutes. Then, the broth is removed from the plate, and the patient makes inhalation (breathes) over a pair of opening, previously covered with a towel head. First, you need to breathe through the nose, mouth and exhale, and then do the opposite (alternate). "Spent" broth can be heated again before going to bed and leave hot in the bedroom at night for the effects on the healing of eucalyptus vapors.
In the absence of a clear positive dynamics and the need for antimicrobials - use modern and relatively safe means of broad-spectrum, carefully studied the contraindications and interactions with other drugs, special, if you are taking vitamin complexes.
These generic drugs are mainly two groups of antibiotics:
- penicillin - amoxicillin, doxycycline (yunidoks), ampioks - they are quickly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, effective against pneumococci, meningokokki and streptokokki;
- tsefalosporinы - cephalexin, cefotaxime, cefazolin - low-toxic antibacterials, affecting both gram-positive, and Gram-negative bacteria, capable of destroying even penitsillinoustoychivye strains of microorganisms.
In severe course of disease, also in the development of or the threat of complications the patient is still hospitalized in the infectious hospital. In some cases, besides bracing, antiviral and antibacterial therapy prescribers hormone group.
Prevention ORZ includes intranasal administration of drugs interferon number, annual vaccination, receiving antiviral drugs (complications) In case of contact with the ill person with influenza according to doctor's orders.
ARI also provides preventive maintenance of a healthy lifestyle, Timely access to a doctor in order to prevent the development of complications and the spread of infection, and wearing special medical masks in crowded places in the epidemiologically unfavorable periods.
Important! ARI treatment and Orville, despite, that the disease is common and is familiar to all, It must be carried out only by the attending physician - qualified!
Approaching the ARI treatment responsibly, you almost protect yourself from severe complications and avoid the undesirable consequences of this disease, reducing the time of complete recovery to the minimum period.