Tetanus is very difficult to treat - while infecting infection affects the central nervous system, which can even lead to death. Vaccination against tetanus is the most effective way to fight against infection and therefore included in the plan of compulsory vaccination in Russia. What you should know about the vaccine against tetanus, to avoid side effects and unpleasant consequences of injection?
Why are vaccinated against tetanus
In recent years, an increasing number of people, refusing vaccination. but before, than to refuse vaccinations should be aware of the danger, which is a tetanus infection.
Why do I need to be vaccinated:
- Pathogen Tetanus is normally in the intestines of humans and animals, then gets into the soil, where most often occurs infection.
- Immunity to tetanus is not formed - after a previous infection can be re-infected with tetanus.
- The disease affects the nervous system, causing symptoms of tetanus (spasms, convulsions), and can lead to death.
- Mortality from tetanus even with modern methods of treatment achieves 95% children and to 70% - adults.
- toxin, released by the agent of tetanus, It ranks second in deaths after the botulinum toxin.
tetanus danger is, in medicine, there are no drugs, able to protect the human body against tetanus toxins. In case of contact infection in the body begins to muscle spasms and cramps, and disease develops over a few hours, after which death occurs.
There are cases of mild tetanus, When infection occurs not from toxins, but directly from the tetanus pathogen. The disease takes place in the form of low-grade, but move it without consequences is possible only if vaccination.
Important! Depending on the condition of the person and the prevalence of tetanus infection may end in death 10-70 % infected. Vaccination against tetanus reduces the risk of infection to a minimum.
Most of all deaths from tetanus were recorded in infants and mothers, tk. catch the infection is quite possible during childbirth in aseptic conditions. Tetanus in children appears much more often, than in adults - children are often traumatized, and through the damaged skin of contracting tetanus simply. Therefore, the question of whether to do the children vaccinated against tetanus, the answer is one - for children vaccination against tetanus is a must.
When being vaccinated against tetanus
An injection of tetanus enters the population of compulsory vaccination plan. Grafting is done according to the plan, and in cases of emergency.
The first time a child makes tetanus vaccination at the age of 3 years. Most often, the vaccine is administered in combination as part of DPT (DPT vaccine). Vaccination is carried out after examination of the child pediatrician.
To consolidate immunity against tetanus vaccinated child should be three times. Because following the vaccination done at the age of 4,5 months (one and a half months), and then - in 6 months.
note! Vaccination does not protect the baby against tetanus to 100%, but to protect it from infection complications and transfer disease in a mild form.
Revaccination of children takes place three times:
- AT 18 months;
- AT 6-7 years old;
- AT 14-16 years old.
Be sure to make a scheduled booster before school, and then in adolescence, then vaccination should be done once a 10 years old. This period is sufficient, to develop a strong immunity to the disease. The frequency of administration of the vaccine should be refined parents at the children's pediatrician, however, you should know, that between the introduction of the next vaccine must undergo more 45 days.
Vaccination for adults
Extreme period of adolescent vaccination - 16 years old, after which occurs every vaccination 10 years old. That is, the introduction of vaccination schedule for adults is as follows: 26-27 years old, 37-38 years old, 47-48 years, etc.. Such a schedule is observed, if a person is vaccinated by the due date.
If the vaccination schedule is lost, the vaccination plan may change. If earlier a person is not vaccinated against tetanus at all, then it is introduced just two doses (with a month break between them), and a year later introduced another dose. Thus the course of vaccination is considered to be fulfilled. Next, the countdown begins in 10 years old, as in conventional terms vaccination.
Must be vaccinated:
- Railroad workers;
Of compliance with vaccination plan for these categories of citizens watching medical services companies and universities.
The extraordinary administration of the vaccine possibly in violation of the schedule of vaccination and in the event of emergencies.
Emergency tetanus prophylaxis is carried out in cases:
- animal bites;
- Violations integrity of the skin (for wounds, injuries, frostbite, burns;
- Nonhealing wounds, gnoynikov, gangreny;
- The operation in the absence of evidence of a tetanus vaccination.
If injured people have to make an injection of tetanus toxoid with the serum as soon as possible.
How to make a tetanus shot
The vaccine against tetanus injected strictly into the muscle - in place, where muscular layer is well developed, but quite thin skin and a small amounts of subcutaneous fat is present. That is, an injection is made in the shoulder, hip or shoulder.
note! Children under three years of vaccination against tetanus is made in the lateral surface of the thigh, adults - often in the shoulder or under the shoulder blade.
Before the procedure should carefully examine the product for vaccinations: it must not contain impurities flakes, deposit. The preparation must be marked, ampoule - not damaged.
Vaccine against tetanus
In Russia, a vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus is done at the same time. This makes it possible to generate immunity to two dangerous infections immediately, and do multiple injections.
For children the following vaccines should be used:
- DPT - diphtheria, pertussis plus 20 Unit toxoid stolbnяchnogo;
- Td - contains a smaller concentration of antigen;
- AC - only it contains tetanus toxoid;
- Infanrix - foreign drug, analog AKDS;
- Pentaksym - the drug from stolbnyaka, polio, pertussis, diphtheria and Haemophilus influenzae.
In practice, confirmed the good tolerability of DTP vaccine - it is well take root, It has no significant side effects. Td and Td are used for the vaccination of healthy children, they nizkodozirovanny components.
For adults use more than two- or single component products from tetanus, reduced-toxoid: ADS-m, Imovaks, RT-m, Adiyult.
What to do after the vaccination
In general, a person after vaccination against tetanus can lead a normal life without any restrictions, but should pay attention to some particular period posleprivivochnogo:
- Should be limited to visiting crowded places, tk. immunity after vaccination a few weak and worthless man pick up an infection.
- When vaccination of children should be a short time after vaccination to be under the supervision of medical staff, in the event of improper reaction to a shot they could react quickly.
- Watering can be vaccinated against tetanus. The exception is swimming in natural bodies of water, where infection can occur through the injection site. When bathing in the bath should not rub the injection site with a sponge, strongly rubbing the skin.
- Not recommended during the 3 days after the injection, engaged in active physical activities, The sauna, pool.
- It is impossible within three days to drink alcohol after vaccination. It is advisable to keep to a diet: eat light food, drink plenty of fluids.
Children often carry heavier vaccinations, than adults. It is necessary to constantly monitor the reaction of the kids, do not leave them unattended.
The consequences of vaccination
After carrying out the vaccination in humans begins to produce special cells (antibody), which provide immunity to infection. Because of these processes, different vaccination reactions may occur in humans, which are not dangerous and are not a pathology, and soon disappear by themselves.
note! Vaccination against tetanus is usually easily tolerated, and reactions and complications are quite rare.
Possible reactions to vaccination:
- Hurts graft. Pain can manifest itself slightly, and usually goes away after a couple of days. Soreness comes in contact with the vaccine into the muscle does not, and in subcutaneous tissue. Pain can be removed Nimesulide, Ibuprofen and other anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Sore arm after vaccination. Because injection ingress into the subcutaneous layer at a prick in the shoulder blade or pain may be given in the arm. Often, when it begins to hurt the hand, at the same time there is an inflammatory reaction at the injection site. local means Aescusan used to reduce inflammation, troksevazin, and for pain syndrome Nimesil, Diclofenac.
- The appearance of edema, seal, lump at the injection site. All these manifestations are also formed in contact with the vaccine in the subcutaneous tissue, and not into the muscle. Do not be afraid of such formations, they themselves go through a short time.
- Redness, swelling, soreness. Normal symptoms after vaccination, which disappear after the resorption of the drug from the injection site.
- Temperature. The temperature can be increased significantly and was not significantly, and stay for three days. This is not a pathology, but it brings significant discomfort, therefore temperature above 38 degrees recommended knock via paratsetomol, ibuprofen, Nimesulida.
In children, a reaction to a tetanus shot was more pronounced, than adults. Most often, this results in higher temperatures and in the behavior of the kid: the child becomes moody, bad eating and sleeping.
Any of these reactions resolve spontaneously after a couple of days. If the reaction lasts longer and does not improve the state of health, it makes sense to consult a doctor.
Complications from tetanus vaccination are very rare. They can be caused by two factors:
- Particularly sensitive to the components of the vaccine, and individual intolerance. Allergic reactions are possible local and general: angioedema, rash, hives, anafilakticheskiy shock. Reaction to the components of the vaccine may be itching at the injection site, bowel disorders, sweating.
- Failure to comply with the rules of administration of the drug or vaccine storage conditions. possible effektinektsiya: the appearance of suppuration and severe pain at the injection site, convulsions, toxic and kollaptoidnye state, nervous system disorders.
Important! If vaccination is carried out correctly, the vaccine is in good condition, and man has no individual intolerance to the drug - complications injection does not cause tetanus.
Adverse actions, arising after the Tetanus vaccine, can be attributed: dermatitis, otitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, bronchitis. Such conditions can occur in the background of weakened immunity after vaccination, and pass on their own within a few days.
As such contraindications to the use of tetanus no. It is impossible to vaccinate people, who developed a severe allergic reaction to the drug and the components, who were previously observed neurological disorders per injection.
The rest of contraindications apply only to states, in which it is impossible to vaccinate:
- Chronic diseases in the acute stage;
- immunodeficiency states;
Before the vaccination necessarily need to be examined by a doctor.