Adenovirus infection in children - this is one of the many varieties of SARS, which accounts for, according to statistics, no less 30% all acute viral diseases. Adenovirus affects connective membranes of the eyes, lymphoid tissue and airway mucous. To the virus are most vulnerable kids from six months to three years, and diagnosed the disease in preschool children throughout the year. Virtually every child at least once in their lives suffered adenoviral infection.
Adenovirus has over thirty different types, of which are dangerous to children 1, 2, 5, 6 serotypes. They are particularly resistant to adverse environmental factors: indifferent to antibiotics, not afraid of freezing, peresushyvanyya, boiling, the action of sunlight and chlorine. Also, viruses can be up to two weeks in an environment without a carrier.
Ways of infection
Danger to others is a sick man (adult or child), which is actively spread the virus in the environment. Also, the causative agent of the disease may be a person, whose disease has no symptoms. Infection occurs in the following ways:
- drop-air. At the very beginning of the disease viruses congregate in the human nasal mucosa;
- fecal-oral. In the midst of the disease viruses are excreted with the feces;
- water. Adenovirus not sensitive k hloru, so the child can catch it, sip of water in the pool or from the tap.
As the majority of viruses, to adenovirus in humans formed a strong immunity, but there is a possibility to be ill due to another type of adenovirus.
In a human body, the virus migrates to the body, until it reaches the lymph nodes, epithelial cells and intestinal lymphoid formations. Then he begins to actively proliferate, penetrating into the DNA of cells and disrupting their work. Less than a day new viruses are formed in the destroyed cells of the body. Since the release of new adenovirus into the bloodstream ends incubation period, there are the first symptoms of the disease. The infection affects the nasal mucosa, tonsil, eye shell, spreading the bronchi and alveoli. Sometimes the virus breaks bowels, liver, spleen. In rare cases, the infection gets to the brain, it provokes edema, after which death occurs.
Signs of adenovirus infection
Once the virus into the body, The incubation period lasts no more than 12 days, but more often the first symptoms appear within a week. Symptoms and during adenovirus infection may be different, depending on the syndrome.
Qatar airways of mucous. It occurs most frequently in children and manifests itself in the form of rhinopharyngitis, tonzyllofarynhyta, laringotraheobronhita. This form of the disease begins suddenly with raising the temperature to 39-40 degrees. There are moderately pronounced signs of intoxication: pain in the muscles and joints, migraine, flightiness, irritability, lethargy and decreased appetite.
After raising the temperature of catarrhal symptoms appear: the child is difficult to breathe through the nose due to inflammation and edema, observed purulent mucous discharge from the nose, markedly increased submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. throat swells, on the tonsils appears light coating, and the vocal cords swell, this leads to a change in the tone of voice, his hoarseness. In some cases, there is a transient aphonia (temporary loss of voice). Once these symptoms appear dry cough, hysterical, plans are laringospazm.
Faringokonyuktivalnaya fever. This syndrome is the result of inflammation of the eyes, mucous membrane of the throat and tonsils. This is one of the most protracted forms of the disease, that the symptoms may subside, then amplified. Often, febrile or low-grade fever lasts about two weeks, exhausting child. Easily palpated enlarged regional lymph nodes. In some cases, there may be enlargement of the liver and spleen.
Acute conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. Adenovirus eye infections - an inflammation of the conjunctiva, which manifests itself in the feeling of a foreign body, pain and cramps in the eyes, increased lacrimation. Bright light begins to cause discomfort. Usually, conjunctivitis affects one eye, and then the second. The little patient swell up and turn red eyelids, mucous membranes appears gray patina. After a week of conjunctivitis can begin corneal syndrome - Keratitis.
Mezadenit. He declares himself the sudden acute pain in the navel, which is often confused with symptoms of appendicitis. The child appears vomiting and rapidly rising temperature.
Diarrheal syndrome is most common in babies, which has no year. They can be a supplement or an independent symptom mezadenita. The child have diarrhea, where there is no blood, but there are a large amount of mucus, frequency of evacuations reaches 7-9 once a day.
Sometimes adenoviral pneumonia develops in severe illness, which leads to respiratory failure. Such a state is not timely medical treatment can lead to death. frequent case, when the disease is complicated by bacterial attack, which causes such comorbidities, as sinusitis, otitis, serous deskvamativnaya pneumonia.
Since the individual features of adenovirus may be part of other diseases, it is impossible to diagnose disease. The doctor suggests adenoviral infection on the basis of such features:
- catarrh of the respiratory organs;
- proliferation and inflammation of the mucous tissue of the pharynx;
- priority, in which there are signs of.
To confirm the diagnosis the doctor prescribes the child a number of analyzes, namely: swab from the nose, smear of the conjunctiva, RTGA, RSC, IFA, REEF, İEM. Such assays also sometimes prescribed for influenza, diphtheria, acute respiratory diseases, different types of SARS, to insure, that viral infection adenovrusnaya.
Treatment adenovirusnoy infections
Treatment usually takes place at home after, as a pediatrician diagnose. In some cases, you need to visit an ophthalmologist and infectious diseases. In rare cases,, when there are complications of adenovirus infection, child needs hospitalization and outpatient treatment. Hospitalized as children without complications, if age is less than 5 years old, as the exacerbation of the disease can be sudden, and the child may not have time to save.
Prerequisite of treatment should be bed rest and peace. The child can get up and be active in just a few days after the normalization of temperature. Feed the child must be diversified, fortified, but light food, rich proteins. Ideal soups and broths. Drinking plenty of fluids will help to quickly deal with intoxication. In the room, where is the sick child, you need every day to wash the floors and ventilate the room, even in the cold season.
Usually, the doctor prescribes antiviral, antihistamines and vitamin complexes. child need medication often to relieve symptoms: vasoconstrictor nose drops, soothing eye drops. The nose is recommended to wash the weak brine, to avoid frequent use of drugs for edema (they tend to be addictive).
In most cases, the baby needed antipyretics (panadol for relief), as well as mucolytic agents, struggling with the violation of the respiratory organs. If the temperature is kept for a long time, it is possible to rub the child's solution of vinegar and alcohol, to decrease the dose and frequency antipyretics their reception. Rubbing and help prevent seizures, which are often in children with long-term high temperature.
To treat adenovirus infection, antibiotics are not needed, but if a bacterial infection is connected to it, their use will need.
In the normal course of the disease without complications recovery occurs after an average of two weeks. In the mild form - much faster.
Prevention adenovirusnoy infections
Vaccination against adenovirus infection does not exist, as well as specific prevention, because the only way to avoid the disease - to strengthen the immune system and protect.
hardening of the organism, even the lightest, increase the chances of the child to cope with viruses. In addition to proper nutrition for children it is recommended to take vitamin complexes each season. it's desirable, to vitamins picked doctor, as in many pharmacies and drug additives, which is significantly lower than the prices of quality. During severe cold and influenza epidemics it is recommended to give the child immunomodulators.
If your baby is in contact with a child, infected with adenovirus, the doctors advise to start accepting children anaferon as a preventive measure.