Young children are susceptible to various diseases, because their immune system is still emerging and not fully operational. Some diseases are considered to be particularly dangerous, and one of them - measles in children - may cause severe health effects. Now the infection is rare, and did not know all, as it appears. In this article, the reader will get information about the features of the disease, its symptoms, methods of treatment and preventive measures.
Description of the disease
Measles viral infection called, infective organism through the upper airways. Its causative agent is the round shape virus. It is transmitted through the air, when a patient sneezes or coughs. Developing in a child's body, he was using the blood spread throughout the body and affects the skin, eyes and respiratory system.
The measles virus in children can be seen in the photo:
This is a very contagious disease, known since ancient times. Now widely used measles vaccination, but the risk of infection is maintained even after the vaccination.
Measles in children difficult transferred to a year: baby's immune system is not fully formed and does not effectively resist pathogens.
Attention! In the first six months of life are rarely infected grudnichok, because it is protected by maternal antibodies.
There is a risk of falling ill, if the mother herself is not immune to infection: there is no vaccine, or she was not ill with measles.
This bat infection; the risk of infection reaches almost 100% in contact with the patient. After being indoors, where he was infected, there is also the possibility of infection.
The disease has characteristic features:
- pathogen resistant to various chemical agents, which are used for wet cleaning;
- Measles is still recognized as the most dangerous childhood disease: without proper treatment of the child may die;
- is bark-fired body the virus is not capable of life, dies quickly - it can live from several hours to several days, but this is enough to infect;
- evolving in the human body, infection suppresses the immune system's ability to defend. The child has, having not yet taken shape immunity, disease just "disable" its;
- during infection of the skin begin to pour pink spots - this is due to the destruction of blood vessels, according to which the pathogen spreads;
- The infection is spread only among men, its "relative" is considered distemper in animals.
Attention! It is believed, that after the disease the person has immunity to measles for life, but it is only partly: In some cases, the virus may remain in the body in "sleep" form and cause re-infection after a while.
Virus in the vast majority of cases transmitted by airborne droplets during contact with an infected (cough, chihanie, weep, cry, etc.). Sometimes the disease can pass from mother to fetus through the placenta.
After infection, the incubation period is about 10 days. Of course, in adults with strong immune disease can go into a vivid stage and through 30 days, but children all proceeds much faster.
The virus to spread more comfortable mild temperatures of early summer. Earlier epidemic often occurred in winter and spring, but widespread vaccination induced disease mutate. Massive infection occur in places where children - in schools and kindergartens.
How does measles in children? The infection takes place in several stages:
- During incubation of the virus have no symptoms of the child quietly.
- At the initial stage of first signs of infection, that resemble a simple ODS disease:
- heat (to 40 degrees Celsius);
- weakness and malaise;
- pain in the head;
- stomach ache;
- poor appetite;
- sputum eyes, mucus from the nose;
- loose stools;
- bouts of dry cough;
- sensitivity to light.
Attention! Grudnichki can save weight.
- A few weeks later the child manifest major symptoms of the disease:
- rash in the mouth (the size of poppy seeds) dull whitish;
- bright spots of pink color up 1 cm in diameter, slightly protruding above the skin: on the forehead, face, neck and all over his body;
- spots become larger in size, merge, acquire an irregular shape;
- the temperature rises above 40 degrees Celsius.
It looks like a rash on the face of the child, you can see in the photo:
Symptoms of the disease can persist for up to 1 of the week, and then lose their spots pink, becoming brownish, start to peel off and disappear. The rash of measles in children are accompanied by itching, but scratch the rash is not necessary.
Measles also seen:
- increase in lymph node size;
- increasing the size of the spleen and liver (in some cases,);
- tachycardia - heart beats faster;
- digestive failure - vomiting, nausea, diarrhea.
Atypical measles and possible complications
Infection can develop non-standard way: it depends on the immunity power and other features.
- With a weak protection of the disease is very difficult: drugs are not able to activate the immune function of the body of the child. In this situation, the armature can lead to serious consequences, including death.
- Mitigirovannaya measles vaccine occurs upon administration of the disease during the incubation period. In this case, any expression, including rash, malozametnы.
- Abortyvnaya Goryeo. Disease after appearance of the first lesions "fades": the temperature rises slightly, spots only appear on the face and quickly disappear.
- Worn and asymptomatic forms have mild symptoms of measles or even their absence.
Apart from the destructive effect on the immune system of the child virus can cause the following complications:
- stomatitis - the most common consequence of measles;
- various forms of pneumonia, including lung abscess shell;
- laryngitis, causing inflammation of the larynx, bronchi;
- encephalitis, meningitis, CNS;
- heart disease;
The above are the most frequent complications, which can cause infection.
Measles during pregnancy
Measles can have a negative impact on the development of the unborn child, if it had been ill during the pregnancy, the mother. First 8 weeks, when there is a formation system of the body of the child, in the fetus may occur malformations, if the mother is at this time ill with measles.
There are also precedents, when the disease was transmitted from mother to child in the womb through the placenta. This situation is rare, but can lead to abnormal development of the fetus and even miscarriage, abortion.
Council! A pregnant woman needs to be doubly responsible towards people, with which it comes into contact. It is recommended to avoid any interaction with measles, even if it's a family member.
Diagnosis and treatment of measles in children
After the onset of symptoms and seeking medical attention, Specialist diagnose disease, additional testing:
- blood test, urine (overall) and finding the virus in these environments;
- the presence of antibodies against measles, their ratio in the patient's blood;
- encephalography (with the defeat of the central nervous system);
- X-ray (if necessary);
To cure the disease, apply various drugs, which eliminate the symptoms of measles in children.
- Formulations for normalization of body temperature.
- Eliminating nasopharynx edema using appropriate drugs and creating a suitable microclimate in a room, which contains a child. A little cool air of high humidity for humidification mucous patient.
- Vitamins taken a child to strengthen the immune system and the functioning of the child's body.
- Careful attention to personal hygiene of the child will help him recover faster: thoroughly wash your teeth, rinse mouth, rinse eyes.
- After the appearance of appetite the patient should be given food, easy for digestion and assimilation.
- Heavy drinking at high temperature.
- Bed rest for the duration of the active phase of the disease.
Also means may be used from a cold, pills and sprays when coughing, drops conjunctivitis, etc..
Attention! drugs described above are used in the treatment of mild forms of measles at home; in the event of a severe form of the disease the child is hospitalized.
Prevention of measles in children
At the moment, in order to avoid infection of the bark-fired virus and minimize the number of infected applied:
- timely vaccination;
- insulation caught from other children or family members;
- Regular medical check-ups, temperature measurements;
- children up to 3 s specific antibodies are introduced not later 5 days after the registration of the first cases of infection;
- unvaccinated children older 3 s definitely vaccinated (in the absence of objections by parents).
Attention! The best way is prevention of measles vaccine. Current vaccines provide complete protection against measles 15 years old.
Vaccinated twice - in the first year of life and in 6 years old. Modern integrated measles vaccination also produce immunity to rubella and mumps.
There are objective contraindications to the vaccine:
- the presence of blood abnormalities;
- malfunction of the cardiovascular system;
- acute nephritis.
Measles - is a dangerous disease for a child. Today, many have forgotten about this infection, but in the past it took away tens of thousands of lives. Despite the measures taken, the risk of infection remains, because to the prevention and treatment of the question need to be taken responsibly. Intelligence, that the reader has learned from this article, help him to act promptly in the event of the first symptoms of the disease in their child.