Almost half of the adult population is faced with such a disease, as genital herpes, symptoms and treatments which are well known. Despite awareness, the virus continues to spread. according to research, currently about 80% of the adult population may be carriers of the virus, but he can not show them in their lifetime.
What is genital herpes?
Genital herpes is called a sexually transmitted disease, provoked by the herpes simplex virus (VPG). There are several strains of the virus, which can attack different organs and systems. The most common virus affects the vulva. Genital herpes may be called first and second strains. Genital herpes type 1 mainly affects the mucous membranes of the lips, nose, eye, chin. Virus 2 type affects the genital area, buttocks, Lobko, Kresttsy, clover. According to statistics, at 80% of cases the cause of the disease is genital herpes strain 2 type. 15% cases occur in strain 1 type and 5% cases pathology caused by the action of both right strains.
A distinctive feature of the pathology is the viral nature of the causative agent. The virus shows no signs of a living organism outside of living cells. Therefore, it is passed exclusively through contact with an infected person healthy. Household way of infection with genital herpes is unlikely. However, it should be taken into account, that the presence on the surface of the skin and mucosal wounds, cracking greatly increases the risk of transmission even everyday way. There is a possibility of the virus through transfusions of infected blood healthy person.
Herpes can be transmitted by sexual contact. HSV-2 is transmitted for vaginal and anal intercourse. HSV-1 can be transmitted through oral sex. The risk of transmission is much higher, if the infected partner pathology just passes exacerbation stage. AT 17% cases woman infected by the partner during intercourse. The use of condoms helps to reduce this risk by almost 2 fold.
It is not excluded vertical transmission from mother to child during pregnancy. Genital herpes virus is capable of passing through the placental barrier and can cause development defects toddler. High probability of intrauterine herpes infection, which can be fatal.
There are several factors, that increase the likelihood of infection:
- unprotected sex;
- multiple sexual partners;
- low immunity, induced hypothermia, stress, intake of corticosteroids or hormonal agents.
After ingestion of, HSV held the incubation period. How much it will last, It depends on the activity of the immune system and the general state of the organism. Timing of the incubation period can range from 1 to 26 days. Most often, the latent period of up to 10 days after infection, after which the first signs. Optional display of herpes is caused by a primary infection. Since infections can be in a latent form for a long time, after the initial worsening, repeated exacerbations may occur as with a decrease in immunity, and when re-infection. In this case, recurrence of genital herpes may be more severe, than the primary infection.
The initial stages of the disease characterized by the appearance of inflammation and itching of the affected area. Through 1-2 day on-site redness begins to form small, filled turbid liquid, bubbles. Distinguish specificity will help with genital herpes photo. On 5-7 daily bubbles burst. In their place are small erosions or ulcers, which are covered by a crust. Sloughing crusts takes up 2 weeks, when the affected area is replaced with healthy skin.
sharpening process is accompanied by itching and burning when exposed to the region of occurrence of bubbles. With the defeat of the urethra possible burning sensation and tingling when emptying the bladder. The process can be accompanied by a general weakness, fever and enlarged lymph nodes in the groin.
Genital herpes in men affects the outer and inner sheets of foreskin, coronal sulcus. Significantly less cases of lesions of the glans penis found, Leather penis and scrotum body. Possible spread of the rash on the perineum and anus. Herpetic eruption brings significant discomfort, creating inconvenience in daily life.
Genital herpes in women most commonly affects the vulva. Also, it may result in inner thighs, anus area. During the multiplication of the virus may be affected vagina, cervix and the urethra.
Genital herpes in children is a particular hazard due to the possibility of infection vertical. Infected mother to child can be a carrier of the virus, without even knowing it. We should also highlight the risk of intra-uterine malformations, which rises when infected during pregnancy. This infection can be fatal.
Herpes Complications can lead to severe lesions of the reproductive system. It is also possible destruction of the internal organs, urethra, rectum. In women, HSV can cause cervical cancer, provided burdening disease human papillomavirus. Constant aggravation of pathology may greatly deplete the immune system, thereby making the body susceptible to the harmful effects of a plurality of pathogenic microorganisms.
methods of diagnosis
Herpes have quite distinctive appearance, However, a knowledge of, It looks like a rash, insufficient for diagnosis. Genital herpes requires additional laboratory diagnostics, in addition the initial examination. For the diagnosis of the doctor conducting a series of additional tests. Enough common method of diagnosis is to grow the virus in cell culture culture. This method is informative and can provide the opportunity to find out, what kind of strain caused pathology. But its main drawback is the length - carrying out a very long-lasting, and therefore its use is not always appropriate.
The most complete picture gives an analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It will show the presence of viral DNA in a patient's body, thereby allowing to determine not only the presence or absence of infection, but the type of pathogen. but PCR, as a diagnostic method has certain drawbacks. required specially equipped completely sterile laboratory for the meeting, because we can not allow the contact of the material with pathogenic microorganisms. The most commonly performed immunosorbent assay (IFA). His conduct reveals the virus in the blood medium.
To the clinical picture was the most complete, to research the largest possible amount of material - brush strokes, scrapings, blood. Only in this way likely to identify the causative agent increases significantly. When the diagnosis in women is very important phase of the menstrual cycle. AT 70% cases, the pathogen can be determined only at the beginning of the menstrual cycle.
While carrying the child study conducted for the presence of antibodies to the virus. Their discovery suggests, that a woman is a carrier of the virus. According to this information and the selection of drugs is carried out.
Important! When pregnancy is forbidden the use of acyclovir. Not less than 12 weeks before the expected conception and during the first trimester is recommended to refrain from taking the drug, because it can have an impact on intrauterine growth. Therefore, the detection of genital herpes treatment comprises receiving other medications.
First of all, should be aware, that at the moment there are no methods of treatment, guaranteed to get rid of the virus forever. May suppress its manifestations, but completely impossible when the infection to get rid of him.
Doctors developed scheme, how to treat HSV:
- Admission antiviral agents. These include drugs, inhibiting the multiplication of virus DNA / RNA. The most popular example is Acyclovir.
- Immunomodulators and immunosuppressants. Based on the severity of the manifestations of, possible appointment as a means of suppressing the activity of the immune system, and it provokes.
- symptomatic therapy. This includes those drugs, that cropped associated symptoms. Usually this ointment, pills, gels, candles. Very popular treatment of genital herpes in women using the suppository - they act locally, relieve symptoms within a few minutes after administration.
- Specific prophylaxis includes the use of vaccines, stimulating the production of antibodies.
- In some cases, physical therapy techniques used to speed up the process of healing and recovery. Physical therapy methods may also be directed to improving immunity.
This regimen tested for decades. it shows, how to cure acute phase of the patient, freeing him from the unpleasant symptoms and to transfer the virus into an inactive phase. For the period of treatment should refrain from sexual intercourse, especially with new partners.
Preventive maintenance helps to minimize the risk of infection. Preventive measures against HSV are divided into specific and nonspecific. Specific prophylaxis includes vaccinations. However, the vaccine can not be guaranteed to say, whether it is possible to protect themselves from infection, because the sensitivity is different in all organisms. Therefore, in addition, you can resort to the methods of non-specific prevention. Nonspecific prevention assumes that the recommendations of the culture of sexual behavior, compliance with the principles of a healthy lifestyle. Significantly reduces the risk of infection with the use of barrier methods of contraception, used in all kinds of sex, especially in contact with new partners.
Compliance with preventive recommendations can help minimize the risk of herpes infection. A timely visit to the doctor when the infection makes it possible to minimize further risk to life and health.