Epstein-Barr virus It refers to gammaherpesvirinae. Like other herpesviruses, eg, cytomegalovirus, it can not be completely destroyed and removed from the body, which means, that everyone, in which a virus is detected, for life becomes a carrier.
Epstein-Barr virus - causes and modes of transmission
The main risk group of contracting the virus are children between the ages of. This age corresponds to the growth of communication with adults, and with other children. In the period from one to three symptoms usually do not occur during infection, development of diseases provoked by viruses, characteristic of the later period: school and teenage.
The main path, in which the virus passes from person to person, - through kisses. In the same way it can be transmitted and CMV. The maximum number of cells contained in the viral epithelial cells okoloslyunnyh glands.
Other transfer options:
- Blood transfusion;
- Bone marrow transplantation.
You need to know, that the fourth part of the EBV virus carriers continuously in the active phase, ie. throughout life, regardless of the presence of symptoms, carriers can transmit the infection.
Course of the disease
Epstein-Barr virus multiplies rapidly in the oral cavity. It sips, salivary glands and tonsils are exposed to it in the first place.
When primary infection spreads throughout the body circulating in blood. As mentioned, large accumulation of viral cells detected in the salivary glands of, as well as in cells of the cervix, liver and spleen. Virus main blow falls on the body's immune cells - lymphocytes.
virus, cells do not disturb the process of production of immune cells, in front of, it stimulates. Therefore, in the moment of impact, and activation of the virus, the number of lymphocytes increases sharply, which causes the seal glands.
Infection of B-lymphocytes (immune cells) virus, It leads to poor immunity. Infected B-lymphocytes are destroyed by T lymphocytes, are generated by the thymus. In addition to the T lymphocyte function is performed by the T-suppressor lymphocytes and NK-. These protective cells are not targeted by the virus, However, in immunocompromised affected the body, they are produced in such small quantities, that is unable to cope infection.
If the body is weakened, and a low level of immunity, increase in the number of infected B-lymphocytes and stimulates malignant transformation of B-lymphocytes, and organs, wherein congestion is detected viral cells.
Epstein-Barr virus has a destructive impact on brain cells and heart, so people, suffering from immunodeficiencies, EBV infection may lead to serious consequences: disturbances of the heart, Central nervous system and death.
Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus is accompanied by the emergence of infectious mononucleosis. Specific symptoms he has no, which sometimes leads to misdiagnosis.
Infectious mononucleosis is one of the most common diseases, which develop due to ingestion of EBV. many mothers, hearing this diagnosis, run to the forum, to get advice. But are all so scary? Komorowski calms parents, mention, that should not be afraid, and one child 2 to five years of age have been infected with the virus. It is often the parents do not even know about it, as the disease may be asymptomatic.
The characteristic symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are:
- Inflammatory lesion of the pharynx, liver, lymph nodes, spleen;
- Abnormalities in blood tests;
- Muscle aches and sore throat.
Fact! Infectious Mononucleosis can not be cured, man remains its carrier.
Since the period of the virus entering before the first symptoms of the disease passes about a half months. Symptomatology includes:
- sore throat;
- Disorders of the digestive system;
Another sign may be a skin rash. An example of a skin rash can be seen in the photo.
The strong temperature increase is not observed, but it lasts a long time - up to 4 weeks. An increase in the lymph nodes in the neck and back of the head, and in severe disease may increase throughout the body.
It should be noted, skin rashes that grow at mononucleosis antimicrobials after receiving.
Laboratory tests make it possible to determine the growth of white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia. A lot of patients have increased bilirubin level, virtually all fixed deviation in liver function.
If mononucleosis is strictly prohibited exercise. This is due to the fact, that the spleen is greatly increased in size and excessive physical activity may occur its rupture.
Normally, the symptoms disappear after a 3-4 Time and illness, usually, not recur. But in some cases there may be complications:
- the central nervous system - meningitis, encephalitis;
- cranial nerves, causing Bell's syndrome, various neuropathies, myelitis;
- hemolytic anemia, autoimmune nature, which in some cases can take place against the backdrop of jaundice and hemoglobinuria;
- airway obstruction;
- inflammation of the myocardium and pericardium.
other diseases, which are caused by Epstein-Barr virus:
- proliferative syndrome, which most often occurs in people with immune disorders. A characteristic feature of the disease is rapid and repeated increase in B-lymphocytes, which leads to dysfunction of many internal organs.
- Oral hairy leukoplakia. Appearance manifested on the tongue and inner surface of the cheeks small hillocks. It is one of the first symptoms of HIV.
- malignancies. Due to the Epstein-Barr virus may develop Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer, tonsils.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome.
- Syndrome Stevens-Jones.
- Multiple sclerosis.
- Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease.
EBV is the greatest threat to people with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency. For such people, the virus can carry a deadly threat.
Diagnostic activities involve laboratory research. On Epstein-Barr virus perform the following tests:
- Serologicheskaya diagnostics, is determined at which titre IgM;
- Defined specific antibodies to the virus;
- Linked immunosorbent assay for the virus;
- Polymerase chain reaction;
- The culture method.
Any special program, how to treat the Epstein-Barr virus, to date, has not been developed. If a person has a normal immune system, the disease is very, without leaving behind the consequences.
In cases, when the body can not cope on their own, prescribe antivirals, more often - or Acyclovir Zovirax.
It can also be used with the drugs interferon and interferon inducers (Arbidol and Tsikloferon). The classic scheme of treatment including treatment with immunoglobulin.
In the recovery period recommended intake of immunomodulators, in particular, Likopida.
Easy means for outpatient. In moments of temperature increase should follow these tips:
- Compliance with bed rest;
- excessive drinking;
- Decongestants for nasal instillation;
- Antiseptic solutions for gargling;
- receiving antipyretics and analgesics;
- antiallergic agents.
Hospitalization is required in rare cases: heat, signs of intoxication, labored breathing.
When you join a bacterial infection using antibiotics.
Dr. Komarovsky warns, What should I avoid overtreatment. Treatment of children and adults should be symptomatic. Video on the, what kind of virus and whether to take any measures, according to the famous Dr., treating children, located below.
It should be understood, that to avoid getting the virus, Epstein-Barr virus in the body in children is almost impossible.
Important! The best means of prevention is to strengthen immunity. This method is equally relevant for children, and adults. Strengthen the immune system, you can use the following methods::
- hardening. Children begin to harden at an early age. The first procedure - bathing in water at room temperature, walk in any weather;
- Good nutrition and saturate the body with vitamins and minerals. The diet must include fresh vegetables, fruits, berries;
- The treatment of any disease should begin as soon as possible. Long term for diseases severely undermines immunity;
- Avoiding stressful situations, physical and mental strain;
- Physical activity (preferably - outdoors).
It is not necessary to try to protect the child from contacts, if he has a strong immune system. Epstein-Barr virus in children occurs fairly easily.
People, suffering immunnodefitsitnymi states, may use a special vaccine, designed to protect the body against the virus.