Pediatricians say, that at the moment it is impossible to find a child 5 years and older, which have never been ill with rotavirus. But the parents were unaware in many cases that, than their sick baby. Rotavirus causes severe diarrhea and looks, as an intestinal infection or poisoning. Children from 6 months to a year or 2 years old 95% cases of intestinal disorders caused precisely by rotavirus. Unfortunately, in underdeveloped countries, where there is no high-quality medicine and reigns unsanitary conditions, rotavirus in children under 5 years often causes death. Because of the strong ongoing diarrhea baby dies quickly from dehydration.
Rotavirus infection is the result of "dirty hands", but to protect yourself from it is unlikely to succeed at all desire. The standard of living and hygiene will not prevent a small child, that everyone pulls in the mouth, catch the virus at least once in a lifetime.
The danger of the disease and statistics
Rotavirus sick about the same percentage of children around the world, but they die from it more than it is in underdeveloped countries. This indicates, that can not protect themselves from infection, but high-quality treatment and nutrition allows you to quickly forget about the illness in most cases. But deaths in case of late detection of the virus are not rare. IN USA, where the percentage of child deaths from rotavirus, the lowest in the world, from it annually kills about 65 thousands of children. These are mainly children under 1 of the year.
Around the globe 125 millions of children each year become ill due to rotavirus, including two and a half million have to be treated stationary. Half a million children die every year from this disease.
In Africa, Asia, on some islands of rotavirus kills more people, than by the infamous Ebola virus. The reason becomes poor nutrition, a weakened immune system in children, malnourished, unqualified medical care or its absence.
This viral infection was first discovered in 1973 , scientists from Australia. Now medicine knows several types of rotavirus, that can affect a person throughout life, but the most severe type of danger is to children.
sources of infection
Sick person, in particular child, I is the main source of rotavirus. Less commonly, it may be a virus carrier. May pose a threat and an adult, who has no idea about, that is a carrier of rotavirus.
A person is contagious from the onset of the first symptoms of the disease. it presents the greatest threat to 3-5 day after the onset of symptoms, During this period, the patient's feces contained the greatest amount of virus. Viruses can also be found in saliva and secretions from the nose, as the breed in the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Infection usually occurs through the "dirty hands", which gets a bacterial infection. Some scientists theorize, that rotavirus is transmitted by airborne droplets, but this theory is not so far confirmed.
The virus is often transmitted through food, who are willing (or who were touched) sick person. Rotavirus is destroyed at a temperature 100 degrees Celsius, so the products are particularly dangerous, which do not undergo the heat treatment and which can not be washed, eg, dairy products. virus infected tap water can also be dangerous, chloro so does not destroy the rotavirus.
Rotavirus in children - signs
After that, as a kid talked to another child, rotavirus sick and having a cough and runny nose, the first symptoms of infection appear during the period from 12 hours before 4 day.
Symptoms are not always unambiguous and can manifest itself in different ways. There are several options.
1 option. At first the baby a cough, noticeable sore throat which may be confused with the first symptoms of the common cold. Body temperature remains normal. A little later begins severe diarrhea.
2 option. The first symptoms occur, evidence of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract.
3 option. It occurs most often in children under one year. In the infant shows signs of intoxication: drowsiness, lethargy or excessive excitation, irritability and tearfulness. A child can lift the leg to the abdomen, lose appetite and refuse to eat at all. Shortly thereafter, there are signs of intestinal infection.
The main symptoms of intestinal infection with rotavirus infection:
- vomiting. Usually, it appears first. Baby vomits when any attempt is made to drink. Vomiting can be repeated 2-3 sometimes more than once. The child feels weak, it becomes sluggish.
- Diarrhea. The child has been loose stools very dark or light color with a pungent unpleasant odor. The chair can be mucus (not necessary), but no blood, or green with rotavirus does not exhibit. The frequency also varies urges. In some children, they come to 10 once a day, others in 2-3 times more likely, than usual. Diarrhea with proper diet lasts no more than 5 day, then stops.
- intoxication. 70% Children with rotavirus "lie reservoir", extremely apathetic, Feeling very tired and weak, refuse to eat. This phenomenon is caused by intoxication and atsetonemicheskim state.
- Fever. The temperature can be increased to any numbers, but most of it is very high. A characteristic feature of the temperature, rotavirus is, that it is almost impossible to bring down, antipyretics provide short-term effect.
- Severe abdominal pain. It is caused by spasms in the intestines and are usually removed spazmalitikami, and decreases after defecation.
The disease lasts with proper treatment and diet is not more than a week. After improvement needs to be done analysis of feces for the presence of rotavirus. It's necessary, because after the improvement is often a second wave of disease. They have the same or less bright signs.
Treatment of rotavirus
There is no specific treatment for this disease, help a sick child is in relieving symptoms. The organism is able to bring the virus itself, if this help him.
The first baby to be taken during the 5 days of interferon antiviral agents. Usually it Lipoferon, which is administered orally as a suspension and as a suppository Viferon. You can also use Enterofuril, which is indicated for bacterial diarrhea. The dosage of each drug must be determined by the physician according to the age and condition of the baby.
Together with vomiting, diarrhea and then the child is rapidly losing fluid, so the task of parents constantly replenish these losses. On the Internet you can find a table ratio required child fluid volume and weight. On the eye can be determined, how much fluid your child is missing: how often he vomited, as watery stools, how intense sweating. Dehydration is very important, since even a short dehydration is detrimental to recovery and prevents kidney. Large quantities of water causes vomiting, so give your child every 10 minutes, a small amount of water. Start with a teaspoon, if all goes well, then go to the dining room, undertaking a bit more. Instead of water can be given to children or a weak solution of rehydron "Humna electrolyte", and a decoction of chamomile or weak compote of dried fruits. Regidron also shown at elevated lethargy, because the toxins from the body and acetone. Special antiemetic drugs do not have to take, as vomiting - a measure of the degree of disease.
Important! If a child begins vomiting, even after the liquid tea spoon, you need to call an ambulance and hospitalized baby. Rehydration will be carried out with a dropper, otherwise, severe dehydration and death can occur.
The child is absolutely necessary to take the activated carbon or other sorbent, to "collect" all the toxins in the stomach and intestines. Sorbents and gently promote cessation of diarrhea.
If the baby's temperature rises above 38,5 degrees, it is necessary to give him antipyretic syrup (Nurofen, Efferalgan). It is also important to rub the body of water-alcohol solution. Otherwise, children, have not attained the age of six, may begin convulsions due to high temperature.
Important! Infectious diseases of the intestine can not be given acetylsalicylic acid and aspirin - it is deadly dangerous!
Rotavirus does not respond to antibiotics, so taking them useless and even harmful, as it creates an additional burden on internal organs. Other antibacterial drugs also do not need to take.
To reduce painful spasms, the child should be taken Nospanum or other antispasmodic in age-appropriate dosage.
Diet about rotavirus
A key role in the treatment of rotavirus plays meals. knowing, that you can eat baby, parents not only to accelerate his recovery, but also significantly improve the patient's condition.
there are products, which contribute to the development of virus, therefore necessary to exclude:
- carbonated drinks;
- raw vegetables and fruits;
- sweets in any form;
- without exception, milk and milk products.
If ill grudnichok, it can continue to breastfeed, because the mother's milk is sufficient substance, help fight bacteria. In this case, the lure should be excluded. Bottle-converted to a mixture of, lactose free.
What to feed baby? cereals, prepared on the water, omelet steam, soups, broth, steam cutlets, pore (carrot and apple), If vomiting is very strong, then you need to offer your child crackers and drying, until nausea is reduced. If the child does not want to eat - let eats, it is not necessary to force. After normalization of supply need to drink probiotics or yogurt with bifidobacteria.
Fully protect children against rotavirus infection can not be, but there are rules, that will reduce the risk of infection.
- Tap water it is necessary to boil, as the chlorine does not kill viruses, a water purification insufficiently;
- Before meals, After walking and going to the bathroom you need to wash your hands with soap and water, which perfectly removes viruses;
- Fruits before eating and to wash with soap and water or scalded with boiling water;
- Infants need to bathe in boiling water;
- Reducing contact with healthy children sick rotavirus.
Many countries already vaccinate, but in the CIS countries, Unfortunately, it has not yet developed. Luckily, person usually suffers from this disease only time in his life - childhood. Borne illness forms a stable immunity 2-3 of the year. Usually by this time the child grows, and his immunity no longer allows rotavirus "roam" in the body.