This is one of the most dangerous diseases, which if untreated gradually destroys the human body. The symptoms of syphilis are generally known and have been repeatedly described in the literature works.
Infecting a sexual partner with this disease is punishable under the laws of.
There are several types of syphilis, they are separated by several factors:
- congenital syphilis - at presence of the disease in the mother the baby is born already infected
- acquired - during infection, resulting from sexual partner or household by
- the disease stage
- primary syphilis
- term symptoms
How to define this disease
This disease can not be defined independently, as the first of its manifestation may be mistaken for symptoms of other diseases.
therefore, if there was a precedent, allowing suspected infection at, should seek medical advice immediately, that was carried out with full diagnostics delivery of analyzes and research to pick the material.
To determine the presence of syphilis conducted:
- complete inspection
Held by a physician-dermatologist, examined the genitals, skin covering, checked lymph nodes.
Microscopic examination of biomaterial, pick up from gummas, chancre, syphilides.
- serological tests
Are to identify antibodies, formed in response to the destruction of the pathogen tissue (Response Wasserman, other tests)
Tests are also conducted in the presence of the organism's reaction (antibody) directly on treponemu, for it will give blood for syphilis and other biological materials
- internal investigations
Identification using ultrasound, X-rays, Computed Tomography gummas, located on the internal organs.
What is known about the disease
The disease is the spirochete - pale treponema. In a human body, it reproduces with great speed and quick turns in all internal organs. In a sick person a lot of these microorganisms in the mucous membranes, which leads to increased risk of infection - contact-household path.
after syphilis, which was completely cured, no immunity is not formed, there is a danger of re-infection.
The originator can not tolerate high temperatures and dryness, but cold does not kill him, and moisture creates conditions for preserving the viability for a long time.
How is the disease
The disease can be transmitted very diverse:
- sexual contact, especially unprotected (in any form of sex)
- blood (blood transfusion, sharing needles for drug addicts)
The latter case is often accompanied by a double transfer - several people at the same time get HIV and syphilis.
- saliva (possible contamination during medical manipulations dentists, if they work without gloves)
- household - through common household items, eg, shaver, toothbrushes, towels
- in other ways, implying contact with an infectious person, sometimes mediated.
You need to know about, that even the use of antiseptics after unprotected intercourse does not provide complete protection from infection. You still need to see a doctor and be tested. First, examination will be aimed at identifying infections with shorter incubation period, then, not earlier, than a few weeks, will have to be checked and for syphilis, donate blood, pass muster.
The incubation period of the disease
Infected person may remain in the dark about his illness for three months or more. The first signs of syphilis begin to appear at a mean 40 days. In this examination and a blood test does not clarify the situation - the results are negative. So lose the ability to cure the disease in the early stages.
Thus was infected capable of transmitting the spirochete, but at this stage it is only possible through the blood.
Mask the symptoms of syphilis or lengthen the incubation period may be the following factors:
- fever (eg, For colds)
- receiving antibiotics, other antibacterial drugs, and reducing (eg, a course of treatment for other diseases)
- elderly age.
Cases atypically long, with mild symptoms incubation period of syphilis are increasing. maybe, this is the reason, that in Russia the number of patients with this diagnosis is increasing steadily.
Course of the disease
The first stage of primary syphilis razvitiya-
You need to know, What are the symptoms of syphilis and carefully consider everything, that at least a little bit like described below.
If the disease develops by type, described in the medical literature, the first sign of syphilis - is the emergence chancre.
Smooth ulcer diameter up to 1 refer to infiltrate the base, not necessarily painful. Usually it is formed in place of the introduction into the organism treponema. Men are often located in the area of the glans and foreskin, women - on the labia or the cervix. There are cases of his education at the perineum, on hips, stomach.
In health care workers sometimes become infected area fingers and lips.
Often, the type and form of the chancre does not allow to assert with precision, it is a manifestation of syphilis, often infected person does not notice his appearance, especially if it is located on the inner surfaces.
Therefore, the first to notice the appearance of many illnesses only after lymph node enlargement, as a result of inadequate treatment can be administered even to see a doctor - are beginning to treat a sore throat or tonsillitis.
Lymph nodes are increased selectively - changes the size of the lymph node, which is located closer to the chancre. If struck by mouth, it submandibular or cervical nodes, sometimes occipital. When the location of the chancre on your toes - increased lymph node on the elbow. The defeat of the head or foreskin provokes the appearance of thickening at the root of the penis - so often recognized syphilis in men. There are various options for increasing the lymph nodes, but the location of the chancre on the inner surfaces of the least favorable for the timely diagnosis. Syphilis in women can not show yourself, if the chancre was formed on the cervix. In this case, enlarged lymph nodes in the pelvis does not attract the attention of diseased. The same thing happens, if the lesion is located in the rectum.
Regardless of the presence or absence of medical action, chancre disappears within a few weeks, and completely. May leave traces after a particularly large chancre, or scars in the case of erosion.
If during this period of time the chancre goes unnoticed, or it does not pay attention, after its disappearance primary syphilis passes into the secondary. At this point, a person start to disturb:
- intense headaches
- periods of weakness
- joint pain, bones, muscle pain
- temperature rise
- symptoms of anemia
- appearance in a large number of blood leukocytes
- with atypical course - increase and seal all the lymph nodes.
The second step - the secondary syphilis
It develops not previously, than three months after the penetration of the spirochetes in the body and can last up to an average 5 years old. Secondary syphilis is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- various rashes, which do not cause any trouble and disappear within a few weeks, in the preparation of the corresponding disease treatment disappear faster.
How can they look:
- roseola syphilitic - is formed on the sides, It looks like pink spots
- papular rash - a rash of different character, wet or dry
- seborrhea formation - appear in the places of activity of the sebaceous glands (forehead, nasolabial folds, line of hair growth). Represent education, fatty covered crusts or scales.
- pustular education - ulcers, which gradually scar
- depigmentation of the skin in the neck - white spots, otherwise referred to as "necklace of Venus".
- lesions of the mucous membranes:
- Erythema on the soft palate and tonsils
- Multiple papular formation in the mouth and throat
- Pustules on the mouth and throat mucous
- Education on the vocal cords - it leads to a change in the voice, and even to its disappearance.
- hair loss, both focal (the appearance of round hairless areas on the hairy parts of the body), and diffuse (intensive hair loss). If the treatment for syphilis, then after a while the hair grow back again.
The development of the second stage of syphilis does not cause discomfort and treatable, however, in the absence of, disease sooner or later goes to the third step.
Third stage - tertiary syphilis
Without treatment, it may take years or even decades, but, eventually, the disease reaches the third stage - will begin the destruction of human systems and organs.
In the third stage of formation acquire a different character:
- bumps in the skin layers
Seals burgundy, sometimes multiple. Have a periodic nature, leave behind scars.
Are formed under the skin, are about the size of a nut, inactive. Reached full size Gunma ulcerate, then slowly heals, It is the scar. The process of their formation and destruction can last for several years.
They are located on any part of the body and gradually destroy it. It can be a bone, soft tissue, hryashti.
The most typical of them:
- Gumma of the nose - causes the destruction of the nose and palate
- Gunma soft palate - the sky is sealed, then it formed sores, that will not heal
- destruction of language - it can be covered with small ulcers or lose mobility and sealed (gummy or sclerosing glossitis). In this case, it becomes impossible to chew food, speak.
- Gunma throat - difficulty swallowing.
If gummas formed on the internal organs and blood vessels, this may lead to a decrease in their functionality, drastic deterioration and sudden death.
Development of neurosyphilis leads to paralysis and progressive dementia.
Sometimes syphilis proceeds atypically, which leads to the impossibility of his diagnosis in the early stages of the disease:
- latent syphilis - the complete absence of external manifestations, This person is contagious.
- subclinical form - if you are taking antibiotics in the early stages. Treatment can be carried out in the case of misinterpretation of the first signs of syphilis, and in the case of treatment of certain diseases. This may result in the complete absence of symptoms is not only the primary, but also secondary syphilis. Manifestation of the disease begins immediately with the tertiary stage, which can lead to sudden death.
- malignant form - accompanied by gangrenous chancre over development, sharp decrease in hemoglobin and depletion of the body.
treatment of syphilis
Syphilis treatment is carried out at STI clinics, for a long time - 2-3 of the month.
This excludes sex, if ill lives in the family, the family members are appointed by the preventive courses.
Treat yourself is strictly prohibited, as this may lead to the disappearance of symptoms of syphilis, but not the disease itself.
The main treatment - the introduction of penicillin every three hours, held stationary during 24 days. If there is an individual intolerance to this group of antibiotics Syphilis is treated by other drugs like action.
Besides, patient prescribed immunostimulant and vitamin complexes.
must, that the sexual partner was also diagnosed and, detection of infection, underwent treatment.