Tuberculosis in adults and children - a dangerous lung infection, threatening dire consequences for the health and even death. This disease is known to mankind since ancient times - it was called consumptive, her research by famous doctors of ancient Greece and the Middle East. But now, in the age of high technology and advanced medicine, one runs the risk of contracting tuberculosis bacteria. In this article, the reader will receive important knowledge about the disease, its symptoms, treatment and prevention.
The causative agent of tuberculosis
It provokes the disease in humans tubercle bacillus (in honor of the discoverer), tubyerkulyeznaya mikobaktyeriya. according to research, This microorganism lives around 30% all the people in the "sleep" state; it is activated in the event of favorable conditions for breeding.
Appearance of pathogenic coli can be seen in the photo:
Every year in the world is more 9 million cases of infection. mortality - 3-4 million, about 50%. Transferred to another person may be the causative agent in contact with the infected person through the air and touching things, he uses. Conversation, cough, sneezing - all this distinguishes the stick into the environment.
Cause disease in humans are 4 tubercle bacillus species:
- tuberculosis humanus - this mycobacterium is responsible for more than 80% TB cases in the adult;
- tuberculosis bovines - causes infection of cattle. A person can be passed, if you drink raw milk of a sick animal;
- tuberculosis microti – подвид, common among rats, mice and other rodents, in humans is rare;
- tuberculosis africanus - its effects are geographically targeted: in the African continent, this bacterium is the cause 90% infections.
Attention! Pathogenic bacillus is very stable in the environment, maintains the vitality of the whole year; moderately humid climate for it - most comfortable conditions.
The bacterium is characterized by high variability and pathogenicity, it responds to changes in body condition: if a strong immunity wand does not manifest itself, it begins with the weakening actively proliferate.
The best defense against disease - good health and a strong immune system: in most cases, the body's defense will destroy the wand immediately if it enters the respiratory tract. But contact with active TB patients and a high concentration of the pathogen can penetrate immunity and lead to infection. In the transitional seasons - spring and autumn - the risk of infection is the highest.
It should take into account the most favorable conditions for the spread of tuberculosis infection: uncooked, unheated or poorly heated a small area of space, rarely ventilated.
It contributes to the development of the disease:
- Weak immunity:
- High stress and fatigue;
- HIV infection;
- availability of Oncology, hormones reception, immunomodulators, etc..
- Living in a poor sanitary conditions.
- The presence of alcohol or drug dependence.
- Chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system, light.
- Young children with immature immune systems.
Forms of Tuberculosis and possible complications
There are varieties of the disease, different speed of development, aggressiveness, inflammation and other features.
- focal tuberculosis. In its clinical picture resembles pneumonia, infects the lung tissue, defeat until 1 cm in diameter. The cough sputum blood is present.
- tuberkulema. Similar to tumor, in their characteristics similar to pulmonary oncology, Infiltrates the cell-treated hard.
- cheesy pneumonia. proceeds aggressively, forming necrosis at sites of inflammation. The incubation period for TB rapid. Formed cavity - cavity in the lung, contributing breakthrough pleura. Characteristically hawking blood.
- Tuberculosis infiltrative-pneumonic. Exacerbates already existing inflammation of the focal infection, typical for secondary tuberculosis.
- Tuberkuleznыy pleurisy. Inflammation is transmitted to the serosal sheath lung, which greatly aggravates the process. Can be released from the liquid admixture of pus.
- Tuberculosis fibrocavernous. One of the most destructive forms of the disease. In the lungs there cavity, processes fibrosis destructive effect on lung tissue, reducing the surface area for breathing.
- tuberculosis cirrhotic. It develops in the absence of timely treatment, also one of the severe forms of the disease. Accompanied by the failure of the heart and lungs, pulmonary area is replaced with scar tissue. It is the cause of cirrhosis of the lungs. This is a rare form of, because few patients survive to this stage.
Lack of adequate treatment of the infection can lead to complications:
- bleeding in the lungs. Emerging cavity can become a cause of blood entering the lungs, which is difficult to remove. Often this becomes a cause of death;
- cardio-pulmonary insufficiency as a consequence of the accumulation of liquid in the cavities;
- pathogenic changes in lung tissue.
As tuberculosis is divided into open and closed forms:
- Sick open form of infection highlights the pathogen into the environment, very dangerous to others - stick can be spread from it to three meters (during coughing). In some cases, the microorganism can be released through the lymph nodes, genitourinary system.
- The risk of infection from TB patients in closed form is much less, is approximately 30%. At this time, it is difficult to identify the disease, because it takes virtually no symptoms. With the development of the disease passes from the closed to the open phase.
Symptoms and course of the disease
In the early stages it can be difficult to identify tuberculosis - at this time the infection may not be the brightest manifestations.
The first signs of tuberculosis:
- chronic fatigue and paleness;
- lack of appetite and weight loss;
- elevated temperature (not higher 37 degrees) for no reason, and sweating at night.
During the incubation period of tuberculosis is characterized by swelling of the lymph nodes - the first serious sign. Nodes increases the armpit and neck, from them the pain is not there.
Regardless of the form are the following symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults:
- active cough, dry or wet. Purulent sputum allocated species, sometimes mixed with blood (rusty);
- short-term reduction and a slight rise in temperature (little different from the norm - from 35 to 37,5 degrees);
- change the sound with rapping chest. It appears "dull" sound - a consequence of filling the cavities with liquid;
- chest discomfort, passing in pain;
- the patient can rapidly lose weight: 15 kg or more;
- wheezing lungs when listening.
Different primary and secondary tuberculosis.
Primary infection develops when a stick from a carrier of the disease and passes 4 stage:
- First, medium-sized hearth formed of infection in the lung (visible on X-ray), increased lymph nodes, Incubation takes place sticks. The disease is in the active phase is in the pneumonic form.
- The concentration of inflammatory cells in lung and lymph nodes is reduced.
- From the main inflammation are only small pockets in the lung tissue and lymph nodes in the visa smaller seals.
- Vital activity of inflammatory-cell infiltrates stops, It is their calcification.
The first time TB can occur in chronic: so it will continue for many years.
Since recovering from the disease can not produce complete immunity, newly infected may. Secondary tuberculosis may arise both from new bacteria, and the old, remaining at the site of the first chamber.
Attention! The process of the disease is characterized by, that the symptoms of tuberculosis at an early stage, there is no: Wand knows the behavior of the immune system, immediately develops high pathogenic activity, spreading through the bronchi and blood lymph.
As can be severe, depending on the strength of immunity disease, cause complications and additional lesions, intoxication of the lungs and other organs.
Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis
To determine the correct treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, you need time to be diagnosed. At the moment, there are several ways to determine the Koch bacillus in the human body.
Examination of the body and lungs.
It is necessary to analyze the condition of the lungs (perkussyya, auscultation) and lymph nodes.
Analysis of the various secretions from the patient.
This method is the primary, who will be able to confirm the presence of the pathogen.
- Blood test, urine (overall).
- Studies in patients of phlegm, including seeding, stain Ziehl-Nelsen, PCR.
- Mantoux reaction.
- Chest X-ray.
- imaging of lung.
- Ultrasound procedure.
Mantoux test is a proven method, It helps identify infection. Planning is carried out even in children, but it has done and adults if necessary. The reaction is already there through 72 hours at the injection site as a point, depending on its size is determined by the presence of the pathogen: If the image of the spot 5 mm and more (in diameter), It means a positive reaction.
Among stationary analyzes for tuberculosis can be identified lung biopsy, puncture and bronchoscopy. Since samples are taken to determine the presence of tumor
Attention! Treat the disease you need inpatient, they are focused on removing the rods and minimize the risk of complications. In severe forms, the patient must comply with bed rest.
Are used 2 main methods:
- drug therapy;
- surgical intervention (in severe forms).
- The use of antibiotics to kill bacteria.
- Medicines for the regeneration of tissue of internal organs.
- Collapsotherapy - increase the amount of gas in the lungs (pnevmtoraks) compression body. This leads to the disintegration of cavities and accelerate regeneration. It is used in severe diseases and in bleeding in the lungs.
- Obezdvizhenie legkih (pneumoperitoneum) for surgery.
Special mode power supply is needed at all stages of the disease and recovery time. Diet is aimed at recovering lost kilogram of body weight and restoring vitamin-mineral balance, including vitamins A, B and C.
Meals consist of fresh and high-calorie food:
- with a high protein content (dairy products, fish, birds, eggs). Meat can not fry;
- carbohydrates (cereals, pulse, fruits). It is also recommended honey;
- healthy fats on the basis of butter and olive oil.
you need to eat 4 times a day.
Prevention and folk remedies
Prevention of tuberculosis in adults involves the use of the following measures:
Vaccination helps to develop immunity to the tubercle bacillus. The organism is introduced attenuated bacterium, which the immune system produces antibodies and memorizes. Is it in 5, 7, 14 years old, however, vaccination against tuberculosis for adults can do to 30 years old.
This test is recommended every year, it will help to discern any lung disease or some tumor.
- Changing living conditions, regular airing of the premises, arrangement of a full-fledged heating system, maintaining normal humidity.
Also, people for many centuries to combat tuberculosis have developed their own ways to treat infections. They consist of a healthy lifestyle, special diet and maintaining cleanliness in personal hygiene:
- regularly eat cabbage;
- for spitting drink marshmallow root (infusion);
- Boil the leaves mother and stepmother (1 tsp a glass of water), drink 3 times a day before meals;
- Boil pine buds (1 tsp kidney in a glass of water), drink 3 times a day before meals;
- three times a day to eat a teaspoon of cod liver oil.
To recognize the real cure with minimal complications for health. To do this, be careful enough, support your immune system and undergo regular medical examinations. The information in this article will help the reader understand, how to identify the incubation period for TB, how to act in case of warning signs.