Bordeaux mixture relates to fungicidal compositions and is used for spraying the flower and vegetable crops. Tool is very effective in controlling various plant diseases, but at the same time it belongs to a very strong poison, It is making it unsafe in the application.
What are the principles of action of Bordeaux mixture, is it possible to prepare the mixture yourself, and what you need to know about the features of its application?
What Bordeaux mixture used
Bordeaux mixture is a liquid pale blue, composed of bluestone, slaked lime and water.
Copper helps crops to develop properly, and micronutrient deficiency causes chlorosis - stunting. In combination with slaked lime bluestone allows compensate for a deficiency of nutrients in plants and protects against various diseases.
First, a mixture of, named after its inventor - Bordeaux winegrower, It used against only one type of vine disease. But the liquid soon began to be used to deal with most types of virus, fungal, Bacterial pathogens, in which a mixture of calcium sulphate and sulphate exerts controlling effects.
The fluid is used both as a treatment, and prevention of diseases and flower garden crops. Bordeaux mixture allows to deal with such diseases, as:
- gray mold;
- potato fungus.
note! Bordeaux mixture is not an insecticide, ie it can not be used for pest control.
Action Bordeaux mixture based on the harmful effect of copper ions on the fungus, lime and thus has a softening effect and allows a means to gain a foothold in the culture for the long term.
As Bordeaux mixture acts on plants:
- basin, cherries and peaches mixture helps protect against leaf curl, patchiness, molinoza. processing trees, you need to stick to the exact proportions, tk. in contact with the mixture to the fruit - they can crack.
- an apple tree, quince and pear sprayed from fillostikoza, rot, scab, patchiness.
- Currants and gooseberries mixture prevents "rust" and leaf spot.
- Tomatoes and potatoes treated by spot and blight.
- grapes sprayed against fungal diseases.
- Melons and cucumbers sprayed on the spot and bacteriosis.
- Flowering plants and ornamental plants irrigate for the prevention of a growing problem.
- raspberry, currant, Strawberry and other berry bushes mixture rescues from "rust", patchiness, anthracnose.
Important! You can not irrigate Bordeaux mixture parsley, dill, celery and green onions.
It should be taken into account, Bordeaux mixture that helps not all plant diseases - for example,, when grapes and powdery mildew lesions of powdery mildew of apple or pear, mixture does not give any results.
How to make Bordeaux mixture
Gardeners use many modifications solution - experimenting with proportions, add various substances. But in the classic version of Bordeaux mixture is prepared in two concentrations - 1% and 3%, and for its preparation only two ingredients necessary: copper sulfate and lime.
Purchase components of the blend can be in many stores, You can also buy a ready-made structure, wherein the components are mixed in equal proportions.
Important! In the preparation of the mixture is important to accurately observe the concentration, to the leaves and stems of plants did not get "burned".
How to properly cook a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture:
- Prepare a solution tank: One on 1,5-2 l, two containers of 5 liters and one - on 10 liters. It is better to choose an enamel bowl, but galvanized metal and container is not suitable for use - dilution of the solution occurs at the oxidation reaction occurs and copper oxide, which is harmful to plants.
- Take copper sulfate 300 gram, and pour it into a pot, Bay water in a small amount. Wait for complete dissolution - should give a clear bright blue clear solution. Water is better to take a soft (as far as possible - the rain) and not too icy, tk. sulfate poorly soluble in cold water too.
- The five-liter container pour vitriolic solution and add cold water already (5 liters). The water should be as cold, otherwise copper hydrate crystals, having fungicidal activity, will not develop.
- In another five liter dilute lime tank with cold water and stir until a pasty consistency.
- Lime mixture is thoroughly drain (you can use the nylon pantyhose, folding them in half).
- In desyatilitrovuyu container to pour the filtered lime mixture. Then a thin stream, stirring constantly, pour solution of copper.
note! At this stage it is important to comply with the order of mixing, otherwise in liquid form flakes and the mixture is unsuitable for use.
- It should check the acidity of the solution prepared. This is done with litmus paper (it is usually included selling kits mixture) and at the right level of acidity litmus will not change color. If the hand was no litmus, you can not take the usual rusty nail, and dip it in the 1,5-2 minutes in a ready solution. If it does not appear rusty patina, the copper sulfate is too much and should be topped up a little lime mixture.
Important! Separately pour lime and adding water in solution can not be.
Bordeaux mixture is considered to be cooked properly, if turned homogeneous sky-blue mixture. If flakes are present in the mixture, in spite of compliance with all the rules of cooking, so, one of the components to expire or quality.
To prepare the 1-th solution Bordeaux mixture, you need to follow the same steps, but the use of 100 gram sulphate and lime desyatilitrovoe bucket.
Important! When preparing the solution it is necessary to use protective equipment (respirator, protective gloves), not to consume food and drinks.
The obtained mixture was typically used immediately - the day of preparation. For, so that the liquid has retained its properties for days, you need to add sugar solution in a proportion 5 d of 10 liters of a mixture of.
How to use Bordeaux mixture
Typically, processing Bordeaux mixture plant produced not more than six times in a season. And this applies to diseased plants, tk. for normal growth of healthy crops will be enough of one spray every three years.
Trohprotsentny solution was used in the February and early March thaw days of, ie. until that time, when the buds on the bushes and trees begin to blossom. Immediately after bud burst processing 3% ethyl repeated, and then spraying occurs only using 1% ethyl, since a stronger concentration may burn the plant.
If the time has been lost and budding has already begun, it is better to use more sparing means for spraying plants (eg, copper oxychloride).
note! Too frequent use of the solution and spraying the plants after the flowering, can cause the fruit to the grid, and ovaries can partly fall off.
Three percent solution preventing the development of disease are also used in late autumn. During the summer and early autumn spraying only 1% solution.
After treatment the plants are covered with a bluish bloom, which is why spraying is called "blue". Treatment is carried out in hot, dry weather - better early in the morning or in the evening, and if the expected rainfall, Spraying is better to postpone.
Bordeaux mixture Processing must take place uniformly and abundantly - mixture must flow down the barrel, leaves and shoots and to penetrate into all the cracks cortex, which accumulates the largest number of pathogenic microorganisms.
Specifics of processing different cultures:
- grapes. Spraying is done in autumn, and the growing season is better not to carry out processing, tk. it may slow down the growth of shoots and degrade the quality of the grapes. but, if the plant is "sick" can handle it a couple of times with a 1% solution. Three percent mixture used once, it uses 1,5 mixture in liters 10 m landing.
- stone fruit trees (apricots, merry, peaches, apricots) processed in early spring, period to bud break. Produced one spraying a 3% solution, and subsequent processing is carried out during the growing season 1-2 fold, but only 1% solution. On mature trees usually takes about 10 liters of a mixture of, and on a young tree - 1,5-2 l.
- Fruit trees (pear, apple quince, Apple tree) enough to handle the early spring 1-2 fold with 3% solution of liquid. And then, if necessary, can be repeated spraying 1% ethyl. Mature trees enough 10 liters of solution, and young - 1,5-2 l.
- vegetable crops processed only a one percent solution: Tomatoes can be sprayed up to four times during the growing season (1,5-2 liters of fluid on the 10 quarter. of landings), Potatoes can be sprayed up 14 times during the growing season (1 solution per liter 10 quarter. m), cucumbers - not more than three times (1,5-2 l 10 m), beets, melons and watermelons are sprayed 3-4 times at a flow rate of a mixture of 10 quarter. m - 1-1,5 l.
- berry bushes (currant, Strawberry, raspberry) are treated with a mixture of three percent in the early spring, and then up to three times in the season the plants are sprayed with a mixture of one percent.
- ornamental shrubs was treated with a mixture of three percent in the early spring, and during the growing season to three times per season with a 1% solution.
After processing Bordeaux mixture for some time, it should abstain from consuming fruits sprayed: fruits can be eaten after 15 days from the spraying, vegetables - after 20 days, berries - after 25 days.
Pros and cons of Bordeaux mixture
Before you decide to use Bordeaux mixture for the treatment of plants, you need to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of funds, tk. improper use can cause damage to crops.
The advantages include Bordeaux mixture:
- Well kept on the shoots and foliage, not even washed off by rain.
- Copes with the majority of plant diseases.
- It has a long duration of protection (up to a month), although this period is largely dependent on the quality of used lime.
- Calcium helps to avoid starvation, is fairly common among the vegetable crops and horticultural.
- component availability and inexpensive cost.
Many gardeners find, that the means has a number of shortcomings, among which:
- Acute toxicity - means refers to a powerful poison, and if you cook it with infringement of rules or eat fruits, unable to withstand the specified terms, it can cause severe poisoning.
- Strict compliance with the rules of proportions and cooking and shaping - improper use can lead to cracking of the fruit, damaged leaves, slowing down the development of young shoots.
- A common means of processing may lead to accumulation of copper in the soil, that subsequently affect the crop growth.
It should be noted, that means all the disadvantages relate to the misuse of the solution, preparation of rules violations, delays in processing and security technology.
The Bordeaux mixture can be replaced
Knowing the cons Bordeaux mixture, Many beginners are afraid to use it, and try to replace the means to more alternative option.
Good efficiency at a simple application show preparations:
- Blu Bordeaux;
- Ridomil Gold;
- acrobat MC;
Many of the analogs are more effective in comparison with Bordeaux mixture, and in addition, they can be combined with various fertilizers and stimulants, they can penetrate into the plant and burn sores outside.
A borodosskuyu mixture can not be combined with organic fertilizers, in addition, falling to the ground, agent can not only destroy pathogens, but also healthy microflora.
Bordeaux mixture - affordable and effective fungicide, indispensable for gardeners. But he is a strong poison, and to use it you need to, adhering to the instructions for the preparation and observing all the precautions.