Winter cold will inevitably entail another outbreak of a flu epidemic. The influenza virus mutates and is shown every year in new forms, which exacerbates the disease and cause serious complications. It helps to cope with the pandemic flu shot 2016-2017, part of which is matched with the recommendations and research by the World Health Organization and the Ministry of Health.
The flu shot 2016-2017: "pros and cons"
Most medical experts tend to believe, that the time to get vaccinated is sufficiently strong and effective protection against influenza. They are guided by the following arguments in favor of vaccination:
- Lowers the level of danger of the virus get sick. The composition of the flu vaccine contains special antibodies, actively respond to the emergence of the virus. I.e, the immune system is activated to fight certain harmful bacteria, allowing the body to further independently detect such viruses and destroy them.
- It produces resistance to other viruses. Since pathogens helps fight strong immunity. The flu shot is the trigger for the creation of a protective unit, capable of protecting the body from different viruses.
- It eliminates the risk of possible complications. Influenza has always been considered intractable disease, tk. when it raises a number of symptoms, which negatively affect the body as a whole. A person can develop fever along with a high fever, which gave complications in the respiratory system and the heart. In this case, the immunity level is too low, it often leads to death.
- It facilitates the disease if infected. Even if the vaccine is not absolutely necessary to have a set of strains of influenza, grafting greatly facilitate the disease if infected.
- Prevents the spread of the epidemic. The vaccine creates a degree of protection against the virus to 70%. This high figure is not only prevents the emergence of influenza, but also protects against most respiratory diseases. In this case it is particularly indicative of the flu vaccine for children, tk. even ¼ of children vaccinated in the team exclude the possibility of an epidemic.
Each year, National Influenza Centers selects three strains of influenza virus, outbreaks are possible in the current year. Matched set of strains will not fully correspond to the, who needs flu. But even in this case, developed the drug will have an effect and will help avoid severe consequences of influenza.
Important! Influenza vaccine does not provide an absolute guarantee against the virus, and provides only partial protection. But to be vaccinated in the event of infection will provide rapid recovery and recovery from illness.
There is an opposite point of view, asserting harmful vaccination. vaccination opponents cite the following reasons:
- Deteriorating health and a fever after vaccination against influenza. This is normal, indicating that, that the body begins to develop immunity against the virus, ensure that the flow of disease milder.
- The virus is activated immediately after made vaccinations. This reaction occurs in the case, if at the time of vaccination organism already had signs of disease. Because prior to vaccination necessarily need a medical examination. Also inoculation in the presence of a weak immunity can activate other diseases, similar to symptoms of influenza (ORZ, ORVI, paragripp).
- Grafting causes allergic reactions. Allergic reactions are often observed in young children, therefore, they recommend vaccination to do while you are taking antihistamines. Allergy are rare, if there are no contraindications to receiving the vaccine.
The effectiveness of vaccination depends on several factors: the individual characteristics of the organism, living conditions and human nutrition and quality of the selected vaccine.
Who needs vaccinations
Do I need a flu shot - to each individual to decide whether you need to own: Vaccination does not have strict medical indications, and is only on request. But there are a number of recommendations, prescribing mandatory flu shots a certain circle of people. These include:
- Old people (especially with chronic diseases);
- Little children (senior 6 months);
- People with cancer;
- Medical staff;
- People with low immunity;
- persons, diabetic;
- children, having chronic diseases;
- Adults and children, having liver disease, light, kidney, hearts.
These categories are the most susceptible to influenza citizens. And they have the disease occurs in severe and with complications as bronchitis, pneumonia, encephalitis, meningitis, etc..
It is necessary to vaccinate people, living in harsh, cold climates, citizens, frequently visited public places and persons, frequent contact with children.
Why get vaccinated children
Every season there are new strains of influenza. Adults, refresher at least some of the virus types, are quite stable immunity, who will fight with the disease. the child's body, It has not previously faced with the influenza virus, more often than not able to resist the attack of bacteria.
In combination with regular exercise, Walking out, proper nutrition and hardening flu shot will help counter the child's body against the virus.
There are two main types of influenza vaccines:
- Traditional vaccination - the usual pang, whereby a substance is injected through the needle into the body. Thus the dead vaccines are, forcing the immune system to react negatively to the appearance of the virus in the body. This method is more popular and familiar.
- Aerosol spray - improved and more modern form of vaccination. After spraying nasal passages active and live vaccines, which act in the same way, as conventional vaccine. In Russia and Ukraine this method of vaccination is extremely rare.
In season 2016-2017 Russia and Ukraine will face three virus strains:
- H1N1 (California);
- influenza "B" (Brisbane);
- H3N2(Hong Kong).
On the basis of these strains and to develop a vaccine against influenza 2016-2017, made of non-living or inactivated (consisting of the decay products) viruses. vaccines, employed in the territory of Russia and Ukraine, divided into several groups:
- Whole virus - consist of whole viral cells (Flyuvaksyn, Ultriks).
- Split vaccines - are composed of particles of the destroyed flu (Begrivak, Grippol, Vaksigrip).
- Subunit - containing surface protein of the virus (Grippol Plus, Agrippal, influvac).
Influenza vaccines are compared in their ability to cause side-effects and effects. Most frequently cause side reactions crude biological serum, which at the same time form the most stable immunity to disease.
note! Vaccination protects people from the flu only for the length of time, to which the drug is intended.
Most experts tend to believe, that the most safe and effective drugs against influenza are split vaccines: they have the least side effects and do not cause allergies, even in young children, and develop immunity against the virus influenza 60-70%.
These drugs include the Russian and French Grippol VAXIGRIP. Comments about these vaccines only the most positive, complaints of side effects are virtually absent.
In the CIS countries made preparations vaccination Russian production Grippol (adults) and Grippol Plus (children). If these drugs for any reason are not suitable person, you can buy other certified products at a pharmacy.
names of drugs:
- Microgen - the liquid inactivated or live vaccine dry the Russian manufacture (price - 70-150 rub).
- Agrippal - made in Italy (price - 300 rub).
- Vaksigrip - manufacture France (price of 580 rub.).
- Fluarix - production Belgium (price - 300-600 rub.);
- Influvac - production Netherlands (price - 260-330 rub.).
On the composition of drugs imported and Russian production do not differ much. Foreign analogues higher in price, tk. considered, that they are clean and comply with international quality standards. because, unless there are specific contraindications to Grippol and Grippol Plus, It can be safely vaccinated by Russian agents.
Grippol different from the composition Grippol Plus - it has Thimerosal (preservative) and contains a large proportion of antigens. Grippol Plus, used to vaccinate children, generates immunity in a child already in the second week after vaccination, and maintains the effect over 12 months. while vaccination can be combined with other vaccines (eg, with BCG) except for TB vaccination.
The composition of both vaccines are constantly being improved and is under the control of Rospotrebnadzor and the Ministry of Health.
Where and how to make a vaccine
Influenza vaccination is not among the mandatory vaccines, but nevertheless it is free for all categories of the population. This is to prevent the epidemic by a significant reduction in the number of cases. Get a flu shot 2016-2017 possible medical offices clinics, schools or in the workplace.
Before the procedure necessarily carried out a medical examination in order to identify contraindications and general condition of the body, after which the patient is sent to the vaccination room.
Important! Doctors recommend to put vaccinated before the seasonal outbreaks of order, organism able to develop strong immunity. The best time for vaccination - September-November.
Vaccination is conducted for children over 6 months and adults, regardless of age. Child before vaccination necessarily examines the pediatrician. If the child is inoculated for the first time, after it must be seen by a doctor. When, if after the first vaccination against influenza is not formed immunity, the double vaccination is recommended, with a four-week interim period. If parents give refusal to get a flu shot for the second, then next year necessarily a pediatrician will recommend the child be vaccinated twice.
The flu shot baby (from 6 months before 3 years old) done in the anterolateral thigh intramuscular. Older children and adults the vaccine is injected into the shoulder.
After the procedure, the injection site is not recommended to wet, to prevent the occurrence of local reactions. Restrictions on eating and lifestyle changes after vaccination is not.
Adverse reactions after vaccination are systemic and local character:
- local manifestations: weak itch, redness and swelling at the injection site.
- Systemic manifestations are extensive in nature and express the resistance of the whole organism vaccine: temperature, lethargy, weakness.
Such manifestations may already done the first day after inoculation, but they disappear without treatment over the next two days.
If inoculation of influenza selected live vaccine (spray method), it speaks of the possibility of the following side effects:
- children (to 17 years old): bowel disorders, muscle pain, cold, nausea.
- adults: cold, headache, chills, weakness, sore throat, cough.
The existence of side effects does not mean, that they must necessarily occur. Most often asymptomatic vaccination, without causing appreciable inconveniences person, if you do not have the appropriate contraindications.
The flu shot: expert evidence
Before, how to determine, whether to make a flu shot, the person has, usually, a lot of questions for her conduct. Consider the most frequently asked questions with answers competent professionals.
The flu virus undergoes mutation every year, It means a shot does not protect a person from illness? Vaccines made with regard to the influenza strains last three seasons, ie. mutation provides the composition of the drug. In addition, the annual vaccination helps the immune system to adapt to any changes types of flu.
Why have not previously done similar inoculations against influenza? Purchase of vaccine costs quite expensive, and not every state is able to provide free vaccinations its population. But the recent outbreaks show, it is easier to prevent the spread of disease, than deal with costly consequences virus. Therefore, it was decided to put a flu shot in the list of free vaccine for the population.
Why many people are afraid to vaccinate? Fear of vaccination due to the fact, that many fear the very thought of, that the foreign body the virus can be introduced. Particularly susceptible to such fear, young moms, which leads to frequent outbreaks of epidemics among children.
Is it possible to immunize children under 3 years of age and whether there is in this sense? Children make most sense to vaccinate before kindergarten, Although vaccination has allowed a 6 months of life.
Is it safe to get vaccinated in epidemic conditions? It is best to be vaccinated against the flu in advance, tk. Vaccination during the epidemic may not be able to act, because the protective function against the flu is formed only after 2 weeks after injection. But vaccination during the epidemic assumes no risk to human health.
When to vaccinate? Optimal vaccination period - end of September, tk. outbreaks usually occur in late October and November.
Do I need to get a flu shot during pregnancy? Pregnancy is not a contraindication for vaccination. The influenza virus is very dangerous for pregnant women, tk. can lead to miscarriage and complications. Vaccination against influenza is carried out in pregnant women 2 and 3 trimester. The vaccine remains in effect throughout pregnancy, and formed immunity child inherited and stored during the first 6 months of life.