HIV appeared not so long ago in the world, less than forty years ago,, but during this time the disease has spread throughout the world and tens of millions of people hit. immunodeficiency virus threatens dire consequences, the development of AIDS and death. In the context of this disease pandemics every person needs to know, how to protect themselves from infection. In this article, the reader will get important information about the symptoms of the infection in women and men, its effects and treatments.
Features of the disease
HIV - human immunodeficiency virus - infection, where the first case of infection was registered in 1981 in the United States of America. Since that time, it actively spread across the globe: currently about 9000 a person is infected with HIV every day.
The appearance of the virus can be seen in the photo:
There is no clear answer to the question, Where did this disease. The most widespread it has received in the countries of Central and Southern Africa, therefore adopted the view, that the pathogen is transmitted to humans from apes - chimpanzees - while butchering carcasses.
Immunodeficiency Virus is considered "slow" virus with a long asymptomatic period. Many people develop AIDS only through 10-15 years after infection. But there are cases (10% people from among all infected), when the disease develops rapidly.
The causative agent affects and suppresses the immune system so, it becomes unable to protect the body from any infection. This occurs when an AIDS as a final stage of HIV.
There are two varieties of the virus:
- HIV-1. I received the most widespread in the world.
- HIV-2. In their characteristics similar to the pattern of disease, striking monkeys.
When injected into the blood pathogen fixed on blood cells and in lymph nodes, responsible for the immune system. Virus multiplication begins active until, while protecting the body will react to the "invasion". According to this principle the disease spreads throughout the body. First, the immune system is not able to adequately respond to infection, and then he suppressed the virus.
Attention! HIV has a high degree of variability, protection system simply does not see the danger.
The disease gradually affects more immune system cells; when their number reaches a critical level, Protection is disabled and develop AIDS.
How can and can not become infected with immunodeficiency virus?
The main methods of HIV infection:
- sex without using contraceptives;
- re-use of needles (squirt);
- by blood transfusion (blood transfusion);
- from mother to fetus during child-bearing.
- The transfer of the pathogen through sex - the most famous way of contracting HIV: it is peculiar to accumulate in the male seed. This method is the main in the spread of the disease among the people. In the criminal law of the Russian Federation even has an article, providing for liability and punishment for the HIV carrier, before intercourse if he did not tell his partner about the presence of host infection and the risk of infection.
Among women, affected immunodeficiency virus, it focuses in the vagina, its secretions and cervical. The main risk of HIV transmission - from man to woman, because the vagina is in contact with the sperm from the penis much longer, than a male member of the vaginal mucosa.
You can become infected and through anal intercourse: during intercourse the virus is passed through the rectum, thin mucous body; in the case of injury to the mucous carried contact with infected blood.
The probability of infection during oral sex is low, but it is also possible, special, if a woman inadvertently scratch teeth member.
Attention! It is recommended to use condoms, but it must be stressed - condoms only reduce the possibility of infection, but do not rule it.
- When a person makes the blood injection in the same syringe, This creates a high risk of getting HIV in the body. For the most part it is about people, drug dependence.
- Immunodeficiency Virus may be present in donated blood. human infection, who receive infected blood, there is virtually 100% cases. The infection may be present in the blood, and preparations to increase blood clotting, plasma or platelets.
Usually, medical institutions responsible approach to the verification of the donor and the deactivation of the virus, but the tests can not confirm the presence of the pathogen, if it is already present in the blood, but the antibodies the immune system has not yet been established. This so-called "blanking", which increases the likelihood of accidental contamination.
- The infection is able to penetrate the child in the womb of an infected mother through the placenta. this risk is 13-50% depending on the quality of observation, prevention and treatment of pregnant mother.
Important! HIV-infected mothers is contraindicated feed her baby breast, because the virus is found in breast milk and can be easily passed on to the baby. Development of immunodeficiency in the child's body does not stop, because the immune system at this time is very weak.
Among other methods of transmission of the disease:
- increased risk of infection in the presence of the disease in a sexual partner genitals. In this case, the sperm of a man or woman's vaginal mucosa contains inflammatory cells, where a large number of Virus;
- infection can occur in a hospital facility: rough handling patient blood, injury from sharp objects disease can enter the body health worker. Also, and vice versa, the patient may be infected by an infected doctor, employee. Such cases are rare, but there are precedents;
- sex during menstruation is not recommended -risk of infection promoted. Also, there is some risk with oral contraceptives.
should know, HIV infection can not be:
- during coughing, Cihan;
- when visiting baths or saunas;
- when using common foodstuffs;
- or in contact during kissing.
Important! The risk of infection is possible only in the event, if in biological fluids containing infected blood.
Symptomatology of the disease in women and men
Before the beginning of the symptom free period, which can last several years, about half of the infected are shown initial signs of infection. Common symptoms during the incubation period of HIV:
- Headache, muscle and joint pain in the body.
- Fever with increasing temperature (no more 1,5 degrees above normal).
- Pain in the throat.
- The rash and sores on the skin, mucosa.
Rashes from HIV on the hand can be seen in the photo:
- Vomiting and diarrhea within a few weeks.
- Swollen lymph nodes throughout the body.
- The emergence of thrush in the mouth.
- brain lesion (meningitis).
It is possible to distinguish characteristic features of HIV infection in women:
- increased body temperature (more than a week);
- swollen lymph nodes (neck area, armpits);
- high sweating day and night chills;
- weight loss (without any reasons).
If untreated, about a year after infection in women:
- appear inflammation, rashes and sores on the reproductive organs, excretory systems;
- It disrupted the normal menstrual cycle, the process becomes painful;
- there is pain in the abdomen below the navel, which is a consequence of internal inflammation;
- failures occur in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Highlighting the unique features of HIV infection in men, It should first be said about:
- the appearance of weakness and malaise;
- the marked stools;
- increase in liver, spleen size.
- the development of the fungus in the excretory system organs;
Subsequently, if untreated infection can trigger the development of pneumonia and brain pathologies.
Speaking about the appearance of tumors, first of all to say about Kaposi's sarcoma. So it is one of the symptoms of HIV, which manifests itself on the skin tumors, large blue spots and rashes in the form of nodules.
Kaposi's sarcoma can be seen in the photo:
Diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection
When the disturbing symptoms should immediately see a doctor for diagnosis. It is recommended to pass the virus on the immune analysis:
- after the rape;
- after unprotected sex;
- if a permanent partner entered into sex with a stranger;
- If during the creation of the tattoo or piercing work is performed for a used needle;
- upon detection of any disease, transmitted through sex.
Attention! The earlier the diagnosis carried out, the higher the chance of successful treatment of infections.
- In response to the infection in the body formed antibodies to the virus, They are looking for them at the time of diagnosis. They occur in about 1-2 months after infection. Prior to that, it is impossible to detect the infection in the blood. The modern method of a blood test can detect the infection in most cases: higher sensitivity 99%.
- When confirming the analysis result in doubt or blood is analyzed by immunoblotting. This method is specific, in most cases, gives the exact answer: there is a virus or not in the human body.
- The most accurate method of determining the virus is immunodeficiency PCR method. It can detect the presence of the virus within 2-3 weeks after a possible infection. The lack of just one - the high cost of analysis.
Unlike AIDS HIV cure possible. The patient is assigned to receive antiretroviral drugs, have been prevented (treatment) the so-called opportunistic infections.
The best-known medicines, which are prescribed for patients with HIV:
- AZT - the first known antiretroviral.
- Didanosine - used in the early stages.
- Stavudine - is used in the later stages.
- Saquinavir - virus protease inhibitor immunodeficiency.
- Nelfinavir - used to treat adults and children.
The described agents have side effects: nausea, diarrhea, enlargement of the liver, neuritis, stomatitis, etc.. The possibility of using any medication determined by the physician based on the patient's condition.
antiretroviral drugs, as a means of tumors, fungi and microbes, provided to patients free of charge
They are caused by bacteria, who permanently live in the human body. In a healthy state, they are not harmful, but in conditions of immunosuppression behave as pathogens in relation to the body. Which they cause disease?
- Tuberculosis. Infected with HIV do Mantoux test annually, for the prevention of anti-TB drugs use.
- Pneumocystis pneumonia. Infected patients drink Biseptolum, if they have lowered the level of CD lymphocytes 4 and the temperature is raised 2 weeks.
- Epilepsy and neuropathy. They are complicated by brain damage, general weakness, sensitivity reduction. Require special treatment.
- dementia syndrome or AIDS dementia syndrome. is shown at 25% HIV patients, It is characterized by a decrease in the level of intelligence, attention, memory, difficulties in reading. Later tremors may occur, disturbances of motor function. In the later stages the patient is immersed in a vegetative state.
Opportunistic infections enough, describes the most common infections.
Detailed information on prevention, treatment and diagnosis of immunodeficiency virus described in SanPin "HIV infections", This document is useful for every Russian, it can be found freely available on the Internet.
Effective protection against this disease mankind has not yet developed, despite extensive research throughout the world. Because in only general measures can be identified as the prevention of this dangerous infection:
- The use of means of protection during sex, have permanent, trusted partner for sex.
Important! If you have any doubt, both partners should get tested for HIV.
- Do not use drugs and, in the presence of, fight addiction. In any case, only disposable syringes should be used, needle.
using a condom, you need to consider certain rules:
- pulling on the penis product, make sure there are no air pockets: while driving, they can break the rubber.
- use of appropriate size condom;
- use a condom until the end of intercourse.
In Russia, the number of people, affected immunodeficiency virus each year increased by 10%. AT 2016 by every citizen should be paid to the prevention of diseases, behave prudently, to avoid infection. The consequences are too serious, to behave irresponsibly. In this article, the reader will learn important information about HIV, how the virus is transmitted and treated.