Infectious mononucleosis in children - not uncommon, causative agent is the fourth type of herpes. Names in this disease more:
- Filatov's disease
- dobrokachestvennыy lymfoblastoz
- Epstein-Barr virus (WEB)
- kissing disease.
This type sometimes becomes a cause of malignant disease - Burkitt's lymphoma.
Mononucleosis in children - the details of the disease
Most often occurs in children with weakened immune systems. Area of risk are children and adolescents up to 18 years old, while children under five years old can suffer symptoms of mononucleosis. In general, young children symptoms are either absent, or are weak.
After this illness the virus remains in the body, staying in a latent state, however, the, who had been ill with mononucleosis, becomes immune to the disease.
In the mature person develop antibodies to the virus.
Characteristics of the disease:
- It affects the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat
- may impair liver, spleen
- changes in blood composition (atipichnыe mononuklearы)
- disease accompanied by high fever.
How do you get infected
You can become infected by both of the individual,, and from the carrier.
Transmission of the virus occurs through saliva, eg, kissing. Also easy to catch, using the general tableware, toys. The high probability of infection exists in the dense cluster of children: kindergartens, school, camp.
Epidemics mononucleosis does not happen, he is not considered a highly contagious disease.
The virus is not able to remain viable in the environment, therefore contamination through belongings and household items occurs infrequently.
Since the virus is in the body can take up to two months, while the incubation period can not be expressed.
As the disease begins and proceeds
The main symptoms of the following diseases:
- The temperature immediately rises to 38-400
- Begin pain and aches all over the body, headache, general course of the disease can lead to misdiagnosis. It is often mistaken for angina or acute respiratory viral infections.
- Swollen mucous membranes of the oropharynx, there is swelling, it hurts to swallow.
- On the tonsils appears gray or yellowish coating, with an unpleasant smell - it is one of the characteristic features of mononucleosis in children (pictured above).
- May appear bleeding gums.
- Sometimes the eyelids swell.
- neck, submandibular lymph nodes inflamed and increase in size, appear simultaneously on both sides of the seal and soreness.
- May appear cold sores on the body.
- In the first stage for a short time (to three days) may appear enanthema (small eruption) the mucous membranes and skin. Rash papular with mononucleosis has character (It rises above the surface of the skin), quickly pass, leaving no trace. There is about a quarter of cases.
- The liver and spleen increased in size, there are signs of dyspepsia. no appetite, nausea.
- Urine becomes dark in color, while the child urinates less, than usual.
- Besides all the above, there is a feeling of constant tiredness, hypersomnia - This symptom may persist for many months after recovery.
- According to the observations of paediatricians, boys are susceptible to a greater extent, than girls.
Features of the disease in a child
Acute period lasts up to three weeks, The first week takes place at a maximum intensity of mononucleosis symptoms in children, this difficult period, Dr. Komarovsky advises survive quietly, without falling into a panic. Then recovery begins, it may take time several times more.
the temperature normalizes, then disappearing phenomenon in the throat, digestive organs also become normal size.
Most slowly coming back to normal lymph nodes. The entire period of the return of the body's healthy state may last several weeks, wherein on the way to convalescence possible aggravation. The disease can last up to one and a half years, and have intermittent character, but then the infection is completely reduces activity, so you can not lose hope - the disease can be cured.
- Blood test shows the increased amount of atypical lymphocytes (mononuklearov). They are atypical because of its irregular shape and nuclei smaller, their appearance is caused by the presence of infectious diseases. The very fact of their appearance suggests an unstable state of the immune system at the time of virus attack - they did not have time to buy a normal structure due to the enhanced production. Number them instantly to normal, as soon as the infection is active Suppression.
- Seeding is carried on streptococci and diphtheria bacillus, if these pathogens are not detected, the probability of "mononucleosis" diagnosis increases (for this is taken swab of the tonsils)
- To clarify the diagnosis performed PCR - polymerase chain reaction - particularly accurate method of determining a viral disease. Mononucleosis is confirmed, DNA is detected if the Epstein-Barr virus.
mononucleosis treatment in children is aimed at relieving the disease and reducing the intensity of symptoms. infectious disease, therefore recommend, what and how to treat it, can only pediatrician.
- The temperature of the knock preparations, approved for children - ibuprofen and paracetamol.
- Good result gives mefinaminovaya acid - a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, he throws a good temperature and relieves joint pain and headache. This action is due to the ability to reduce the drug prostaglandin production, that affect the inflammatory processes. It can be used for quite a long period, to weeks, but you need to consider, that you can give to his children only after five years.
- From the use of aspirin would have to give, since the treatment of children's risk of developing Reye's syndrome - an acute condition, which poses a threat to a child's life, otherwise it is called the white liver disease. This pathology suffered by children between the ages of 4 to 12 years old, that in the treatment of viral colds medications allowed, containing acetylsalicylic acid.
- Do not use antibiotics, especially by choice. They weaken the already injured by illness immunity. Antibacterial drugs are prescribed only physician in exceptional cases, eg, if on the background of the disease develop complications, caused by bacterial lesions.
- Sometimes the doctor prescribes drugs antiherpethetical.
- hormonal medications can be prescribed in severe cases,, Anti-inflammatory effect.
- If struck internal organs, enlarged liver and spleen, should prescribe gepatoprotektory and Bile - so says Dr. Komarovsky (his advice can be found, watching the video).
- The throat is treated as well as in angina: rinse apply (furacilinom, herbal decoctions, you can use aerosols). Thus it is necessary to treat attention to oral hygiene, thoroughly clean the teeth, rinse your mouth after each meal.
- If you developed a bad cold, should be used vasoconstrictor drugs, the child can breathe normally.
- You also need to take vitamin complexes and immunostimulants.
In general, treatment of infectious mononucleosis in children has a supporting character and aims to help the child's body to transfer disease.
In prescribed bed rest when sick, particularly strict it should be observed during the first two to three weeks.
As with common colds, should ensure that excessive drinking (teas, herbal infusions and decoctions).
You should not feed your baby violently, preference is given to a light nutritious meals. It is best to create a menu of low-fat dairy products, also well suited vegetables, boiled or steamed. You can give boiled or steamed meat and low-fat varieties of fish. Fresh vegetables and fruits should also be in the diet.
Nutrition should be a fraction, several times a day, small portions. smoked food, fatty and fried foods should be excluded. nuts, dishes from beans, Sweets are also not recommended.
Despite the possible periods of apparent improvement, should not relax - a disease capable of producing dangerous complications, and with the rapid development of.
Monitor the status of the child must be constantly, to immediately see the coming changes:
- If there is shortness of breath, pain when breathing, chest pain - perhaps, I began to develop pneumonia
- If you have pain in the left half of the abdomen and abdominal muscle tension there - can be suspected splenic rupture
- can begin to develop hepatitis
- If the headaches are not removed pills - this may be a sign of meningitis.
Important! If any status changes, the appearance of pain of unknown etiology should immediately call the emergency aid. better safe, as many complications pose a serious threat to the life of the child.
In addition, you need to know - procedure, that treat colds, prohibited under mononucleosis:
- rubbing warming means.
Initially, should not try to treat yourself mononucleosis, especially, by the diagnosis - it can threaten a child's life.
Even if the network has multiple sources, as well as forums on this disease, they are not a substitute for professional medical approach to child. Tips, which can be found on the forum, not always suitable for each child, therefore, build on them and take curative action alone can not.
After an illness may be consequences
The disease is characterized by a very long recovery period.
The consequences of mononucleosis in children can last a long time, one and a half years. Infection after suffering illness remains in the body, and periodically exhibits activity. Recovering the child can not be immunized for a period of up to one year.
Besides, I have to abide by some rules:
- It is not recommended to change the place of residence - climate change can activate the dormant virus.
- We must be particularly careful, if the recovery period was in summer: It should not be a long time in direct sunlight, You do not need to carry the child to the sea - the heat and water can trigger a relapse.
- Overcooling or overheating are also prohibited.
- The child will remain weak for a long time, fatiguability, poor appetite, so you need to show love and patience and understanding, it's not the whims, and the effects of the disease, has violated almost all the processes in his body.
- For quite a long time will have regular blood tests to mononucleosis. Indicators of the number of atypical mononuclear cells as remission virus activity should go on the decline. If this does not happen, the child will be observed in hematologists, which will appoint the periodic inspection of its condition.
Important! Excludes any exercise, including physical education classes at school. Injured during illness spleen recovers its normal parameters and functionality is very slow, however over time saved risk of rupture.
It is attentively applied to all, what the doctor says, and remember, that this virus under certain conditions of the organism and the immune system can cause cancer.
Been ill child should ensure a healthy active life, excellent food. It is necessary to refuse food and dishes, which can overload the liver and spleen.
If you ask a question on the forum, parents, whose children have suffered this disease, happy to share their developments menu and their experiences in the correct passage of the recovery period.
Light delicious natural products, regular exposure to fresh air, athletics, hardening. All of these simple steps will help strengthen the immunity of the child, which excludes the activation of the virus in the future.