As there is humanity itself, so much there and botulism. This disease, associated with severe toxic infection, amazed people for centuries. So, eg, in the seventh century Leo VI, the Byzantine emperor, banned blood sausage, because of it people began to die.
Interesting, that due to this product and got its name botulism disease. In Latin, the word sausage is written as botulus. Of course, You can pick up the infection and of other food, but in ancient times, many cases have been connected with sausage.
Because of what is developing botulism?
Botulism - an acute infection, which begins because of contact with the human body of botulinum toxin. Although the cause often lies in food, disease most strongly affects the nervous system, especially the spinal cord.
The bacterium of botulism are anaerobic. It means, she lives only there, where there is no access to air. pathological disputes, usually, grow in the soil, and from there into the water, and then direct the carrier, that takes a human or animal pathogen.
In addition to the spore form, botulism bacterium is able to grow in the autonomic. In this case, the bacteria would die, if a:
- It will be half an hour at a temperature of about eighty degrees;
- it pokipyatit five minutes.
Disputes also much more stable. They are quite easy withstand physical and even chemical exposure. Five hours of boiling, not destroy them, and a temperature in excess of one hundred twenty degrees has some negative impact.
Although vegetative form and is less dangerous, if such organisms warm as, but they shall never perish, it may be a so-called "dormant spores". They quietly withstand drying or freezing, UV light also will not affect them. Six months later, such disputes will sprout, and when next to them would be a suitable environment, they are activated and start to secrete huge amount of venom.
sources of infection
Botulinum toxin in the environment to survive for a year, but most of botulism in humans occurs through the fault of food. canned spinach, beet, beans - malicious anaerobic organisms can be almost anywhere.
but, a key source of infection is considered to be the contents of the intestine different creatures. These include:
- domestic and wild animals;
Botulism in conservation is more concerned with the technique of manufacture, rather than a particular product. Therefore, the bacteria can be in fish and mushrooms, in packages with salt, eg, in cucumbers, and they are able to develop in the sausage and ham.
note! It is believed, that the key danger comes from the products, made yourself, at home. Ill due to the industrial production of goods is very difficult.
Although acidic environment and is not particularly conducive to disease botulism, if the bacteria were previously, They do not die from it. Usually, Organisms grow prevents low temperatures and large amounts of salt.
Other types of pathology
Food option - the most common type of the disease, However, there are several other. for example, secrete wound type.
- In this case, botulism causes lie in contact with harmful spores in an open wound.
- If the conditions created are suitable for the development and reproduction of the microorganism Named, the disease will.
Another kind of pathology is called a "child". The name associated with the, that most patients with botulism is infant, usually, not older than six months. The disease develops due to the ingestion of a child dispute. Over time, they develop full-fledged bacteria, which hit the intestine and begin production of toxins.
Over time, the human defense mechanisms developed enough, to resist such a process of development of microorganisms. Therefore, the "children" of botulism is not dangerous to people over the age of six months.
Finally, allocate two more types of pathology, but they are almost never considered. In the first case of botulism poisoning is due to man-made disasters or bioterrorism, whereby the toxin is released into the air. The second option - the so-called "indefinite botulism", which doctors say, if you do not know, which led to the onset of the disease.
How to determine worthless conservation?
The main problem in this regard is the fact, that the symptoms of botulism in preserving almost completely absent. The presence of bacteria does not change the taste or smell of the product, even symptoms are extremely improbable.
Botulinum toxin can reliably detect only under laboratory conditions. but, There are several factors, are worth paying attention to the manufacture and purchase of conservation.
- If the liquid becomes turbid, it bubbles appear, it is best not to consume this product.
- Relatively reliable sign - inflated cap. It is to abandon the products like those, As shown in the photo below.
- canned ejection expired - an excellent prevention of botulism.
Despite, that the berries are boiled, toxin can appear in a jam, so for him, too, should be taken carefully. Somewhat less susceptible to infection by the tomato juice, since it has a low pH.
Council! It is best to undergo further processing marinated mushrooms, eg, using vinegar.
Generally, You need to be careful with food, were not treated thermally, as well as to monitor any manifestation of gassing.
Infection begins the development of the latent stage. The incubation period of botulism may take several hours, and five days. If the poisoning is especially strong, the symptoms of the disease begin to appear during the twenty-four hours.
note! The smaller the latent phase, the more severe form of the disease.
Usually pathology manifests itself suddenly. The man begins to feel the first signs of botulism:
- power loss,
- headaches and dizziness,
- general deterioration,
- sharp abdominal pain,
Symptoms of botulism are changed the next day. Patients appear dry mouth, stomach may swell, begin constipation. If treatment is obtained at this stage, the pathogen will strike the nervous system. This happens fairly quickly, and, Firstly, suffers vision.
Botulism in humans makes objects fuzzy, possibly doubling. Gradually, the paralysis affects the muscles of the face, because of what goes wrinkles and nasolabial folds disappear, sometimes it occurs drooping eyelids.
In the next stages of botulism patient begins to lose his voice and ability to swallow. Finally, paralysis does not breathe normally, there is pain in the chest, cough reflex disappears.
note! Sometimes death comes because of the problems which developed with the respiratory system.
infant botulism symptoms are somewhat different. In this case, the children observed:
- inability to keep his head;
- hripы in crying;
- lack of strength and appetite;
- bad chair;
- violation of the swallowing reflex.
In this type of disease, the incubation period may be a long, and the infection often occurs due to contact with the ground or normal household dust. Also as a result of botulism in children able as complications develop pneumonia.
Firstly, Diagnosis is based on history of botulism, which provides the patient. Besides, conduct laboratory research. The disease is confirmed, If the sample is found Wand botulism.
It is important to put the correct diagnosis before, as the disease seriously damage the nervous system. Usually, doctors pay attention to, whether a person has a fever, How often diarrhea, Do not breathing disorder appeared, and so on. P.
Since most of the initial symptoms of the pathology characteristic of various poisonings, experts conduct a differential diagnosis, eliminating rabies, encephalitis and other conditions.
treatment of the disease
If the disease is diagnosed, the person is an urgent need specialized care, which is carried out only by hospitalization infectious ward.
Firstly, doctors provide functioning of the heart and respiratory system, and then the terminal will be engaged toxic toxins from the human body. If the patient is no longer able to breathe on their own, then it will be connected to a ventilator.
Botulism is killed by a special monovalent serum, but it is also used antibiotic therapy and tetracycline drugs, because the body can remain controversial.
The disease requires a lot of time for the full treatment. Often residual paralysis symptoms persist for several months after the elimination of toxins.
Whatever the quality of any home look preservation, before drinking it is better to boil for half an hour - during which time malicious organisms must perish. It belongs, Firstly, to mushroom, meat and vegetable products - botulism in canned kind is relatively frequent.
If the product appeared to be infected, it is not enough to destroy only the. It is necessary to disinfect the dishes and all, that contacted with this food. All people, consumed it, You are required to be tested by a doctor, even in the absence of symptoms.
Although it is an infectious disease, it is not transmitted from person to person.