Before each autumn-winter season, scientists detailed study viruses and influenza strains, that will prevail in the current year. By itself, the flu is not a dangerous disease, but its consequences can be very severe. Complications of the disease can lead to disability, Some cases are fatal.
What is the flu?
Influenza is a viral disease, occurs in acute form. Virus, irrespective of the strain, It affects the upper respiratory tract. The disease affects the upper respiratory tract, hitting the trachea, larynx, nasopharynx. The virus affects equally often and men, and women. The greatest risk of ill - people between the ages of 20 to 50 years old, especially those, who has a chronic disease, and immunodeficiencies. The most dangerous disease for children, pregnant women, elderly.
Outbreak or pandemic influenza usually occurs in the autumn-winter period, at least - in the early spring. Complications occur in one in five people sick. In total, from the flu kills about 500 thousand people a year. That is why it is so important to know the signs and symptoms of influenza 2016 of the year.
Ways of infection
Influenza adult is transmitted by airborne droplets, as well as during everyday contacts. Respiratory pathway is the most common. After sneezing or coughing sick man flu pathogen gets into the air, which breathes a healthy person. More rarely, when the virus settles in her arms, surrounding objects and transmitted through them,. This applies to viruses B and C. but, there is influenza virus type A, which also affects domestic animals and poultry, so that you can catch them and.
The environmental conditions of any of the types of the virus does not live more than eight hours. The longest, it is stored at low temperatures, the air. The influenza virus enters the body through the mucous membranes of the face - eye, nose and mouth.
Influenza can be classified according to the severity of symptoms:
- A mild form of the disease is characterized by an increase in temperature to a maximum of 38 degrees and insignificant in the body intoxication.
- Form moderately severe flu involves raising the temperature to 39,5 degree of intoxication and salient features.
- In severe flu develops lightning speed and is characterized by fever before 40 degrees and above, observed sleep disturbances, severe headaches.
Important! If any form of influenza as quickly as possible it is important to seek medical advice.
Sometimes the symptoms of influenza in adults may be missing, this form of the disease called atypical and difficult to diagnose.
The main symptoms of the flu:
- The lack of common cold, dryness in the nose and throat
- Pain and aching muscles, joints, generalized weakness
- If you have a cough, the dry, sore throat
- no appetite
- There is increased sweating
- Chest pain
How to distinguish the flu from the common cold
Treatment of colds and flu assigned different. But often the patient does not understand the danger of the situation and confuse one with another disease. In fact, these diseases are very different from each other in many ways.
- Flu begins abruptly, the very first signs appear very bright, there is an acute type of the disease. Cold develops gradually.
- Influenza is molded to a high temperature 40 degrees, colds such a high fever is not observed. How much the temperature is kept at a flu, It depends on the timely and competent treatment.
- With the flu in adults is not a runny nose and sneezing, while a cold is one of the most distressing symptoms.
- Weakness and fatigue exist in both diseases, but the flu is more pronounced. The general condition of the flu bad.
Important! It is better not to take risks and at the first sign of the disease, seek medical advice. It will determine the symptoms and treatment of influenza or the common cold.
Strains of flu 2016 year
AT 2016 by virologists predict outbreak of flu, therefore advised to be vaccinated in time. projected strains:
- Swine flu, H1N - is a viral influenza A, which is transmitted not only between people, but also from animals to humans. Different scale epidemics, severe complications in humans and a high mortality rate. In addition to traditional methods of transmitting the H1N1 virus disease transmitted even in a passive way, that is, by eating meat of infected livestock and poultry.
- Asian flu, H2N Cyclical symptoms of influenza 60 years old, That's why scientists predict the emergence of the strain right now. For the first time the virus appeared in 1957 in China. The epidemic raged for two years, and got to the USSR. Beginning with 1968 , the H2N2 strain has been superseded, We have since ceased to get a flu shot this type.
- Hong Kong flu, H3N Distinguishing signs of the disease are similar to swine flu, but H3N2 is considered less dangerous. Most often it affects people with reduced immunity. The risk group - children under two years of age and older people 65 years old, pregnant women, HIV-infected.
Attention! determine, What is influenza strain infected people, only after passing the relevant tests.
Before you assign any medications for the flu, you need to make a diagnosis, to verify the exact nature of viral diseases:
- anamnesis. The doctor listens to the patient's complaints, asks the relevant questions.
- patient survey. Influenza in adults is characterized by white patches on the tongue, reddening sky, tonsils, the rear wall of the pharynx and other features.
- auscultation of the lungs, as sometimes occurs in influenza pneumonia.
- Laboratory research. They include general and biochemical blood tests, urine and feces.
- specific survey. These include rapid test to determine the serotype of the virus by means of special strips of testers. Also actively used the PCR method, when taken with nasopharyngeal swab. It is the most informative and accurate way to determine the type of virus. Other specific tests include enzyme immunoassay, DGC analysis, HAI analysis. Virological infection is determined by sputum culture.
Important! Determine the type and strain allows you to assign competent treatment of influenza.
Timely and competent treatment of influenza in adults helps prevent complications and severe consequences.
Important! How to treat flu, Only the doctor knows! It is important to accurately perform all his precepts: adhere to treatment, take medications on schedule.
Flu, Depending on the severity and course of its forms, can be treated at home or in hospital. Causes for hospitalization may be the presence of complications, exacerbation of chronic diseases, lack of proper care for the sick at home.
In the treatment it is important to observe the following recommendations:
- bed rest
- Contraindications to physical activity
- excessive drinking
- Good nutrition
- The use of physical methods to cool the body at a high temperature, eg, obtiranie, or cold bubble on forehead
After the examination the doctor will choose the appropriate drugs to treat influenza. Are usually prescribed medication following groups:
- antiviral agents. Effectively fight the flu virus, killing it. These include Rimantadine, Arʙidol, Tamiflu, İngavirin, Grippferon and other.
- Antibiotic is assigned only in case of bacterial complications or for the prevention. Directly antibiotics have no effect on the virus.
- antipyretics. needed when the temperature rises above 38,5 degrees.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs with local action. When inflammation in the throat is necessary to rinse it with a solution of salt, soda and iodine, Yoksom, Lugol's solution. Good help to relieve inflammation Miramistin, Orosept spray. Because tablets are most effective Lizobakt, Faringosept, lozenges Strepsils.
- Cold preparations necessary, if the flu is accompanied by cough. suitable ACC, Lasolvan and other drugs.
- Nasal sprays and drops. Runny nose with influenza is rare, when it appears possible to use any drugs, to remove a symptom.
- detoxification therapy. It performed intravenously with a strong intoxication.
- Antihistamine drugs are prescribed to reduce inflammation and desensitization organism.
Prevention of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections in adults include the following::
- Avoiding large crowds during the activity of the virus.
- Avoid contact with sick.
When the first symptoms of flu should see a doctor and not self-medicate, as this can lead to serious complications. Often, when the signs of a cold or flu people are starting to take an antibiotic, which in this case is useless.
Everybody knows, that the most common prevention of influenza in adults - is vaccination. discussions, whether or not to vaccinate and would not it be a reaction to the flu shot adverse, appear before each autumn-winter season.
Vaccine, which contains the surface antigens of influenza strains, introduced into the body of a healthy person. The question of, whether to make vaccination, you need to decide well before the onset of the epidemic. The effect of the vaccination is, if you do it in September and October, since immunity to influenza viruses produced during 2-4 weeks.
If there are contraindications and it is expected a negative reaction, then get a flu shot can not be an adult, assigned medotvod. It offers another option of prevention: receiving immunomodulatory drugs, personal hygiene.