- What is late blight?
- Causes of late blight
- As rescue from tomato Phytophthora chemical means?
- Treatment of folk remedies Phytophthora
- Use of yogurt or whey
- Processing baking soda
- the use of salt
- garlic tincture
- Boiling water
- Copper wire
- Care of seedlings
- Prevention of late blight in the greenhouse
Like all vegetables, tomatoes, growing in a greenhouse or in the garden, are exposed to various diseases. They are caused by bacteria and fungi. Quite often, gardeners are faced with the unpleasant phenomenon, how phytophthora on tomatoes. You deal with it by using chemicals or folk remedies. Besides, it is important to know the preventive measures, which will help prevent disease in the future.
What is late blight?
Late blight or late blight - a contagious disease, which pathogen is the fungus genus Phytophthora infestans. Scientists have more than 50 species of these fungi. They reproduce by spores. Mycelium fungus lives in the remains of infected plants, in garden tools and soil. After the winter of their life cycle begins anew. By the favorable conditions of high humidity relates to their lives.
Late blight on tomatoes often occurs in late summer. Summer residents still call it brown rot. Phytophthora first affects the leaves, then proceeds to the fruit. Below you can see on the leaves brown spots. In rainy weather, they appear oil film. Over time, the inflorescence of tomato acquire a yellow tint, darken and fall off. On fruits are formed of different size spots. Across the plantation disease spreads very quickly, in several days.
When the high moisture fungus spores initially grasp the lower part of the leaves. They have a kind of white coating. Gradually fungus strikes and the upper part, forming brown spots. The following are affected inflorescences and fruits. Their rind is too thin, there is an unpleasant smell, because the flesh begins to rot of tomatoes.
Causes of late blight
Specialists are the following causes of the disease:
- close planting tomatoes with potatoes;
- sharp changes in temperature day and night;
- heavy dew falling in August;
- frequent rains;
- dense planting and poor ventilation between the bushes;
- an excessive amount of nitrogen;
- an excess of lime in the soil;
- excessive watering of plants during fruit ripening;
- deficit in honey kidney, iodine, manganese and potassium.
That does not appear late blight on tomatoes in a greenhouse, should properly take care of them. The main rule - respect for the thermal and wet mode, conduct preventive treatment. Water the plants should be rare, but plentifully. In order to prevent recommended decontaminate equipment and itself greenhouse.
note! If late blight entered the greenhouse, there it develops much faster, than in the open field, as the room for it suitable climate.
As rescue from tomato Phytophthora chemical means?
Quite often gardeners used for processing tomato against Phytophthora such chemicals:
- Antibacterial drug Trykhopol. To spray the bushes they, should be dissolved 10 tablets in 10 liters of water. First processing should be carried out at the stage of formation of ovaries, then the procedure should be repeated twice a month.
- A solution of potassium permanganate. It has an antiseptic effect for seed. They should be placed in a gauze and dipped in a solution of potassium permanganate to the 35 minutes. After the procedure, the seeds rinsed with water and dry well.
- Iodine. It has antimicrobial action. Iodine from phytophthora on tomatoes effectively used in combination with milk. To do this, mix 1 l milk with 10 liters of water, then add 25 drops of iodine.
- Zelenka. Must be dissolved in water 40 drops of green fodder and conduct spraying tomato.
- Boric acid. It has an antiseptic effect and adversely affects the growth of the fungus. Dosage boric acid 10 l of water is 20 ml.
- Bordeaux mixture. To prepare the solution should be mixed 100 g of copper sulfate and 200 g quicklime in 1 a bucket of water. First, water must be mixed sulfate, then lime.
- Hydrogen peroxide. It is considered an additional source of oxygen for tomatoes. it also has an oxidizing effect and kills the pathogenic flora of fungi. On 1 liters of water is required 40 ml hydrogen peroxide. When handling special attention should be paid to the bottom of the leaves. Allowed to spray the plant no more 1 times a 7 days.
- fungicide Hom. The active ingredient in this remedy acts of copper oxychloride. It acts on the surface and does not fall inward fruit and leaf. Such a preparation is excellent for prevention, but it is absolutely useless to the already ailing tomatoes. Hom fungicide advantage is the lack of ability to accumulate. Fungi do not have time to get used to it, so that each use will be effective. The drug can not treat all plants and more 5 dis season. Its effect will last 2 weeks. Latest treatment should be carried out for 20 days before harvest. To prepare the solution should be connected 40 g and fungicides 10 liters of water. Sprinkling plant them only in clear weather. The procedure must necessarily held in protective clothing, since the drug a third class of danger.
- Furacilin. It has antibacterial action. The solution does not deteriorate, so it is allowed to cook for the whole season. To do this, grind 10 tablets and add them to a bucket of water. Treatment should be carried out 3 fold: before flowering, during the occurrence of the first of the ovaries, and in the period, when they ripen first fruits. The advantage of the drug is its safety for humans.
- Fitosporin. It is a biological pesticide, containing bacteria. The drug penetrates the plant tissue and thanks to beneficial microorganisms destroys all fungi. Fitosporin considered biologically safe means, so the tomatoes fruits can be eaten immediately, but after washing them thoroughly before it under water. The drug can be combined with other chemicals. Also, it is permitted to use not only for the treatment of late blight, but also as a preventive measure. To prepare a solution, should be added to a bucket of water 20 Mr. fitosporin. The water temperature in this case must not be higher than 35 ° C. recommended 4-5 hours to keep the mixture in the sun to activate the beneficial bacteria. Treatment should be performed every 10 days during the summer. Replace the preparation can be such analogs, as: Planriz, Fitoftorin and Bactofit.
- fungicide Ordan. The structure includes means 2 active component - copper oxychloride and cymoxanil. They get inside the plant and have a therapeutic effect for 2-4 days, and preventative - to 2 weeks. To prepare a solution, enough to connect 25 and g product 5 liters of water. Fruits are not allowed to eat at least 5 days.
Treatment of folk remedies Phytophthora
Fighting late blight on tomatoes can be different folk remedies. They are less dangerous to humans, but also has the effect on the plants as inferior to, which have chemicals.
Use of yogurt or whey
To suppress the action of the fungus on tomatoes helps lactic acid bacteria, included in the buttermilk or whey. This tool is used for the prevention and treatment plants. For its preparation must be diluted with water in a ratio of serum 1:1. If the agent is prepared on the basis of yogurt, the 1 L should be diluted in a bucket of water. Yogurt can replace milk, adding a 20-25 drops of iodine. Infuse solution which several, then perform processing. The procedure is allowed to carry out on a daily basis.
Processing baking soda
Soda - a universal product, so it is effectively used for the processing of tomatoes against Phytophthora. enough to dissolve 20 g soda in 5 liters of water and add 30 ml liquid soap. The procedure should be carried out 1 once a week or immediately after rain.
the use of salt
Salt is actively fighting the blight, creating on leaves and fruits of thin white layer, which prevents the penetration of the fungus into the plant. It effectively used only for the prevention of. To prepare the solution required 250 g of salt and water bucket. The plant is necessary to spray the entire. After the rain, it is recommended to re-hold processing.
To protect tomatoes from Phytophthora infection, Many gardeners use toothpaste, because it has a bactericidal effect. enough to take 1 tube and dissolve in 10 liters of water. This agent may be combined with other traditional methods.
According to numerous reviews, vinegar - is a popular product to protect tomatoes from late blight. To this should be diluted 200 ml 9% vinegar 10 l of water and treat the whole plant.
To protect tomatoes from late blight is useful to apply the ashes. should be dissolved 5 kg of raw material in a bucket of water and leave for 3 day, stirring occasionally. on expiry 3 days to bring the volume to 30 l and add 100 ml liquid soap.
note! Processing plants allowed 3 times over the summer: after 7 days after planting in the ground, before flowering and during the development of the first of the ovaries.
Garlic has a pungent odor and bactericidal action. To fight phytophthora on tomatoes should 350 g crushed garlic cloves pour 10 l of water and infuse 1 day. Spray means obtained every bushes 14 days.
The easiest and cheapest method to protect tomatoes from late blight - watering boiled water plants. It is necessary to boil the water and treat with a watering seedlings. The procedure can not be held more frequently 1 times a week.
At the first sign of late blight on tomatoes can be used yeasts. enough 100 g raw material dissolved in 10 liter of warm water and leave for 2 o'clock. Treat the whole plant.
Detrimental to the fungal spores is copper. Enough wind plant at the roots of the wire and poke it at the base of the stem. This way of dealing with the disease strengthens immunity tomatoes.
Care of seedlings
Before planting tomatoes in the ground is necessary to strengthen their immunity. It is recommended to perform a range of activities:
- Before planting the treated plants 5% solution of liquid Bordeaux.
- after 2 Time to spray Artseridom.
- later 2 Time to process the fundazol.
- This is followed by alternate Artserid and fundazol.
Prevention of late blight in the greenhouse
Prevention of the disease in the greenhouse includes the following rules:
- Not to plant tomatoes there, where previously grown potatoes, pepper and eggplant.
- Pull out all the weeds, because they retain moisture.
- Not to plant tomatoes for several years at the same place.
- Do not oversaturate soil nitrogen fertilizers.
- perform weeding, if a long time the soil retains moisture.
- After harvest, do not leave for the winter in the garden tops, it should burn.